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Julius II, Pope

(279 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] from Nov 1, 1503 to Feb 21, 1513 (birth name: Giuliano della Rovere, born Dec 5, 1443 in Albissola). Sponsored by his uncle, Pope Sixtus IV, Julius received several bishoprics and became a cardinal in 1471. As the main rival of the Borgia pope Alexander VI, he was forced to seek refuge at the court of the French king Charles VIII. Later, elected pope through simony, Julius sought to consolidate the Papal States internally and to fill them out externally (reconquest of large parts of Romagna).…

Helding, Michael

(202 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] (1506, Langenenslingen – Sep 30, 1561, Vienna) studied in Tübingen and, as an M.A. (1528), became headmaster of the cathedral school (1531), cathedral priest (1533), and suffragan bishop (1537) in Mainz, where he was awarded a Dr.theol. in 1543. Helding took part in the religious disputations (I; 1540, 1546, 1557) and in the Council of Trent (I) in 1545/1546, during which he called for systematic reforms in order to prevent a complete secession of the German church. He acted as th…


(214 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] Malta is an island group (Malta, Gozo, Comino) in the Mediterranean, south of Sicily. It has an area of 320 km2 and a population of some 409,000 (2007). Already settled in prehistoric times, in 480 bce the islands came under the control of Carthage. After the fall of Carthage, in 281 bce Malta became part of the Roman Empire, and then (after 494 ce) part of the Byzantine Empire. More than two centuries of Arab rule (870–1090) put a permanent stamp on the islands and their culture. Later, as part of Sicily, Malta was subject to various overlor…


(175 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] (from Lat. nepos, “grandchild, nephew”) refers to efforts to place relatives in influential ecclesiastical or ecclesiastico-political offices, thus benefiting them by exploiting the power of appointment. In the bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire and particularly in the Papal States, where celibacy prevented the establishment of dynasties, bishops and popes favored their own families in awarding dignities, offices, benefices, and fiefs. In the Curia, the support given weak popes by …

Months, Papal

(173 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] Papal months ( menses papales) were initially the first two months in a quarter, then the odd-numbered months in the year, in which a benefice had to be settled, som that the pope would have the sole right to appoint, as opposed to otherwise legitimate authorities (esp. bishops). In the early Middle Ages the popes had increasingly succeeded in obtaining this reservation; it was contractually laid down for the empire in the Vienna Concordat of 1448. Papal months, modified by privileges…

Madruzzo, Christopher

(162 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] (Jul 5, 1512, Madruzzo near Cavedine – Jul 5, 1578, Tivoli) studied at Padua and Bologna, and after assuming several canonries (Trent, Augsburg, Salzburg, Brixen) was from 1539 bishop of Trent. In 1542, the year of his consecration and appointment as cardinal, he also assumed the administration of Brixen; he repeatedly sought other archbishoprics farther north in the empire. Madrutsch, a vassal of the emperor and close friend of the pope, tried, as a theologian tending towards ref…


(165 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[English Version] (von lat. nepos »Enkel, Neffe«) bez. Bemühungen, einflußreiche kirchl. und kirchenstaatspolit. Stellen mit Verwandten zu besetzen und sie so unter Ausnutzung der eigenen Macht zu begünstigen. In den Hochstiften des Reiches und v.a. im Kirchenstaat, wo sich aufgrund des Zölibats keine Dynastien herausbilden konnten, bevorzugten Bischöfe und Päpste ihre Familien bei Vergaben von Würden, Ämtern, Pfründen und Lehen. An der Kurie war die Unterstützung schwacher Päpste durch begabte Ve…
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