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Philadelphier

(164 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Philadelphier, eine Richtung im myst. Spiritualismus des 17./18.Jh. 1670/1694 gründete die Visionärin J. Lead(e) in London mit anderen engl. Anhängern J. Böhmes die »philadelphische Sozietät«. Die sieben Sendschreiben der Apk auf ebensoviele Perioden der Kirchengesch. deutend meinten sie, jetzt beginne die Zeit von »Philadelphia« (Apk 3,7ff.) mit der Sammlung der wahren Kinder Gottes zur endzeitlichen Gemeinde. Zu den Religionsparteien (Konfessionen) und deren Lehren (bloßen »Mei…

Quietismus

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] I. Begriff Der Begriff Q. (vgl. lat. quies, »Ruhe, Stille, Schweigen«) ist eine urspr. polemische Bez. für eine Richtung der Mystik im Katholizismus des 17./18.Jh., deren Spiritualität auf die »Seelenruhe« als höchstes Ziel ausgerichtet war. Bei den Auseinandersetzungen in Italien um sein Hauptmerkmal, die »orazione di quiete« (»Gebet der Ruhe«), sind nach 1680 zunächst der Name »Quietisten« für deren Verfechter, dann, wohl im Zusammenhang der lehramtlichen Verurteilung 1687, die Abstraktbildung »Q.« entstanden. II. Geschichte Der Q., der in der 2. H…

Poiret

(287 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Poiret, Pierre (15.4.1646 Metz – 21.5.1719 Rijnsberg bei Leiden), franz. Mystiker. Nach dem Schulbesuch wurde P. Französischlehrer am gräflich hanau-lichtenbergischen Hof in Buchsweiler (Bouxwiller, Elsaß), studierte seit 1664 in Basel, Hanau und Heidelberg Theol., wurde nach der Ordination 1669 in franz.-ref. Gemeinden der Pfalz Hilfsprediger (Otterberg, Frankenthal, Mannheim) und 1672–1676 Pfarrer (Annweiler). In diese Jahre fallen die ersten Kontakte zum Pietismus in Frankfurt …

Ronsdorfer Sekte

(134 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Ronsdorfer Sekte, entstanden aus einer philadelphischen Sozietät (Philadelphier) in Elberfeld. Im Mittelpunkt standen der Kaufmann Elias Eller (1690–1750) und die Bäckerstochter Anna v. Buchel (1702–1743; seit 1733 Ellers Ehefrau), die als »Zionsmutter« ekstatische Offenbarungen (Inspirationsgemeinden) über das bevorstehende Tausendjährige Reich (Chiliasmus) empfing. Ihr Sohn Benjamin (1734–1735) sollte der Messias sein. Sogar Pastoren, z.B. F. Schleiermachers Großvater Daniel (1…

Werner

(144 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Werner, Johannes (1598–1659?), Wanderprophet. Der Bauer aus Bockendorf, Sachsen, fühlte sich 1629 durch eine Vision berufen, in der Folgezeit die »Veränderungen des Hl. Röm. Reiches« während des Dreißigjährigen Krieges prophetisch anzukündigen und zu kommentieren. So verurteilte er z.B. Sachsens »Verrat« im Prager Frieden (1635). Seit 1636 zog er mit dem schwedischen Heer und begleitete auch Truppenteile über den Westfälischen Frieden hinaus bis zu seinem Tod. Er forderte zum Kamp…

Nikolaus V.

(144 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Nikolaus V., Papst 6.3.1447 – 24.3.1455 (Tommaso Parentucelli, geb. 15.11.1397 Sarzana, Ligurien). Nach Studien in Florenz und Bologna seit 1426 an der Kurie, 1443 Vizekämmerer, 1444 Bf. von Bologna, 1446 (in Anerkennung seiner Verdienste im Kampf gegen das Konzil von Basel) Kardinal, 1447 als Kompromißkandidat zum Papst gewählt. N. förderte nachhaltig Wiss. und Künste (Beginn des Renaissancepapsttums). Mit Friedrich III. schloß er 1448 das Wiener Konkordat (für die Beziehungen zw…

Hochmann von Hochenau, Ernst Christoph

(254 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1669/ 1670, Lauenburg/Elbe – Jan 12 [?], 1721, Schwarzenau), one of the chief proponents of radical Pietism. The son of a Lutheran official and his Catholic wife, Hochmann studied law at several universities, experienced conversion in Halle with accompanying enthusiastic phenomena and worked as a tutor in Pietist homes for some years. Before the turn of the century, associated with millennialist expectations (Millenarianism), he appeared in Switzerland, in Frankfurt, Laubach and …

Tschesch, Johann Theodor (Dietrich) von

(169 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Mar 18, 1595, Voigstdorf, Silesia [Wójtówka, Poland] – Feb 22, 1649, Elbing [Elbląg]), mystical spiritualist. After studying law in Marburg, in 1619 he entered the service of the elector palatine Frederick V and later the dukes of Silesia. His life was dominated by his conversion in 1621, brought about by an accident. He turned to a spiritualism that sought to combine the heritage of mysticism with the ideas of the Reformation (J. Tauler and Luther as duo centra unienda). He was surrounded by a circle of friends that included A. v. Franckenberg, with whom …

Poiret, Pierre

(318 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Apr 15, 1646, Metz – May 21, 1719, Rijnsburg, near Leiden), French mystic. After attending school, Poiret became a tutor in French at the court of the counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg in Bouxwiller, Alsace. From 1664 he studied theology at Basel, Hanau, and Heidelberg. After ordination in 1669, he served as an assistant minister in French Reformed churches of the Palatinate (Otterberg, Frankenthal, Mannheim). From 1672 to 1676 he was pastor in Annweiler. During these years he had his …

Daut, Johann Maximilian

(158 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (died after 1736), radical Pietist. A cobbler's apprentice, he was expelled from his home city, Frankfurt am Main, in 1709, because of his polemics against the church and authority, led an irregular life as a wandering prophet (Wittgenstein region, Leiden and Altona). In view of the impending judgment of God, he called “false and unrepentant C…

Dippel, Johann Konrad

(373 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1673, Schloß Frankenstein near Darmstadt – Apr 25, 1734, Schloß Wittgenstein near Laasphe) was a Protestant theologian, alchemist, and physician. Having begun in Gießen, Dippel continued his studies of (the artes liberales and then) theology in Straßburg. Here, he encountered ¶ Pietism – with which he had become acquainted through J.H. May but initially rejected – by reading the writings of P.J. …

Constance, Council of

(274 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] The reform Council of Constance met from 1414 to 1418. The joint efforts of the German king, Sigismund (1410–1437), and the pope of the Pisan obedience (Pisa, Council of), John XXIII, to heal the Western Schism led to a council held in the imperial free city of Constance; it became the largest ecclesiastical congress of the Middle Ages. Its major tasks were to restore the unity of the church ( causa unionis), oppose the heresies of J. Wycliffe and J. Hus ( causa fidei), and reform the church ( causa reformationis). When John XXIII sought to evade the council's demand t…

Pisa, Council of

(155 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1409). After the failure of various attempts to put an end to the Western Schism (Papacy: II),most cardinals of the two rival popes (Gregory XII [1406–1415] in Rome, Benedict XIII [1394–1417/1423] in Avignon) renounced their obedience to them, and together called a council in Pisa. This condemned both popes (without deciding on their legitimacy) for their obdurate behavior, and deposed them. However, since these popes did not submit, and they continued to receive political suppor…

Nicholas V, Pope

(167 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (pontificate Mar 6, 1447 – Mar 24, 1455; Tommaso Parentucelli, born Nov 15, 1397 in Sarzana, Liguria). After studies in Florence and Bologna, from 1426 he was in the curia; 1443 vice-treasurer, 1444 bishop of Bologna, 1446 (in recognition of his merits in the fight against the Council of Basel) cardinal; in 1447, elected pope as a compromise candidate. Nicholas promoted scholarship and the arts to lasting effect (beginning of Renaissance papacy). In 1448 he concluded the Vienna Co…

Philadelphians

(184 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] This is a movement within the 17th-18th century mystical Spiritualism. The Philadelphian Society was founded in London between 1670 and 1694 by the visionary J. Leade with other English followers of Jacob Böhme. Applying the seven letters of Revelation to seven periods of church history, they believed that the time of “Philadelphia” (Rev 3:7ff.) was now beginning, with the gathering of the true children of God into the eschatological community. The Phila-¶ delphians kept a “non-party” distance from religious parties (confessions) and their teachings (…

Mel, Conrad

(190 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Aug 14, 1666, Gudensberg near Kassel – May 3, 1733, Hersfeld). Mel studied in Rinteln, Bremen and Groningen, and was influenced by covenant theology and the Reformed Pietism of T. Undereyck. In 1690 he became preacher in Mitau (Kurland), 1692 in Memel, 1697 court preacher, and, from 1702, also professor in Königsberg. Here he held conventicles and, influenced by G.W. Leibniz, devised plans for missionary work among the heathen. In 1701 he became a member of the Prussian Akademie …

Gruber, Eberhard Ludwig

(185 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Jun 12, 1665, Stuttgart – Dec 11, 1728, Schwarzenau), radical Pietist (Pietism). After studying theology (from 1683) and a period as a graduate student (1689–1692) in Tübingen, Gruber pastored in Württemberg (1692–1703, Großbottwar, 1703–1706, Hofen). His heterodox views (Millenarianism/Chiliasm, perfectionism), contacts with the enthusiasts and his impudent attitude toward fellow pastors and members of his congregation provoked conflicts that led in 1706 to his dismissal from th…

Haug, Johann Friedrich

(316 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (often erroneously called Heinrich; Apr 17, 1680, Strasbourg – Mar 12, 1753, Berleburg). While still a theology student in his hometown, Haug was already involved in a fierce controversy concerning Pietist-Philadelphian conventicles. Following his banishment (1705) and a two-year sojourn in Esslingen that also ended with his expulsion ( Zeugnuß der Liebe an die Inwohnere der Stadt Straßburg und Eißlingen [Testimony of love to the inhabitants of the city of Strassburg and Eißlingen] (1708), Haug settled with his father David and his brothe…

Arnold, Gottfried

(552 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Sep 5, 1666, Annaberg, Saxony – May 30, 1714, Perleberg, Altmark), the son of a Latin teacher, studied at Wittenberg from 1685 to 1689; there he came under influence of the polyhistor Conrad Samuel Schurtzfleisch (1641–1708). He turned from orthodox scholastic theology to Pietism under the influence of the writings…

Religiöse Reformbewegungen

(5,022 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans | Reichmuth, Stefan
1. Christentum 1.1. Allgemeines Als R. werden in der Geschichte des Christentums diejenigen relig. Bewegungen ( Soziale Bewegungen, religiöse) bezeichnet, die eine reinigende Änderung der Zustände oder verbessernde Neuordnung in der Kirche oder deren Teilbereichen (z. B. Frömmigkeit, Liturgie, Orden) anstreben – im Unterschied zu gegenreformerischen oder ›reaktionären‹ Bewegungen, die Änderungen zu verhindern oder Neuerungen rückgängig zu machen suchen. Wenngleich Reform (von lat. reformare, ›umgestalten‹, ›wiederherstellen‹) dem Wortsinn nach auch die Wie…
Date: 2019-11-19
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