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Bücher-Meyer-Kontroverse

(1,856 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) RWG
Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) RWG [English version] A. Einleitung (RWG) Als Bücher-Meyer-Kontroverse (BMK) wird in der neueren alt-histor. und wiss.-geschichtlichen Lit. die zw. 1893 und 1902 geführte Debatte über die grundlegenden Merkmale der ant. Wirtschaft bezeichnet. Ausgangspunkt dieser Diskussion war die 1893 erschienene Schrift Die Entstehung der Volkswirtschaft des Ökonomen Karl Bücher, der die Auffassung vertrat, für die Ant. sei eine Dominanz der Hauswirtschaft charakteristisch gewesen. Auf der dritten Versammlung dt. Historiker in…

Opera

(232 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[English version] Mit dem lat. Begriff o. wurde die Arbeitsleistung bezeichnet, die von einem arbeitenden Menschen - über dessen Rechtsstatus damit keine Aussage gemacht wird (er konnte Freier, Freigelassener oder Sklave sein) - an einem Tag zu erbringen war (Cic. off. 1,41; vgl. auch die Definition bei Paulus, Dig. 38,1,1: operae sunt diurnum officium). Die röm. Agrarschriftsteller verwenden o., um genau festzulegen, in welcher Zeit bestimmte Arbeiten zu verrichten waren; auf diese Weise war es möglich, über die Arbeitszeit hinaus die Arbeitsgeschwind…

Gynaikokratie

(486 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[English version] (γυναικοκρατία). Der Begriff G. (“Frauenherrschaft”, von griech. γυνή/ gynḗ, “Frau” und κρατεῖν/ krateín, “herrschen”; vgl. gynaikokrateísthai, “von Frauen beherrscht werden”) ist zuerst in philos. Texten des 4. Jh.v.Chr. belegt. Die Verwendung erfolgt fast immer polemisch. Bei Aristoteles wird die G. im Kontext der Kritik an der politeía (Verfassung) der Spartaner thematisiert und als Voraussetzung von Habgier und einer extrem ungleichen Verteilung des Bodens gesehen (Aristot. pol. 1269b 12-1270a 31; vgl. auch Plut. Lykurg…

Kastration von Tieren

(303 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[English version] ( castratio) war in der ant. Landwirtschaft ein häufig praktiziertes Verfahren, um die Eigenschaften von männlichen Nutztieren den Interessen der Menschen anzupassen. Bei Pferden und Stieren hatte die K. den Zweck, das Temperament der Tiere zu verändern, ohne ihre Lebensfähigkeit zu beeinträchtigen (Xen. Kyr. 7,5,62). Aristoteles beschreibt in seinen zoologischen Schriften die Wirkungen der K. und betont, daß die Verstümmlung eines kleinen Körperteils das ganze Erscheinungsbild ei…

Kalk

(546 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[English version] Die von den Griechen angewandte Technik, bei der Errichtung von Quadersteinmauern die einzelnen Blöcke mit unterschiedlich geformten Klammern aus Metall zu verbinden, wurde von den Römern für die Monumentalarchitektur übernommen. Daneben verwendeten sie im Hausbau schon früh Mörtel als Bindemittel, der aus K. und Sand bestand. Auf diese Weise erhielt K., der in Griechenland vor allem für den Verputz von Gebäuden gebraucht worden war, unter den Baustoffen in röm. Zeit eine größere Bedeutung. K. wird durch Brennen bei Temperaturen von etwa 1000° C aus K…

Portrait

(2,270 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Schneider, Norbert
Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The genre of portraiture, which developed in Antiquity, and especially that which developed in Rome from the 1st cent. BC under the influence of the Greek, diverged into a multiplicity of types (portrait statues,  equestrian statues, portrait busts, apotheoses in relief form, imago clipeata on sarcophagi etc.). According to their respective functions and historical (re-)applications (e.g. as portraits of rulers or poets), these types cons…

Pigs

(1,385 words)

Author(s): Nissen | Reeg, Gottfried | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Near East and Egypt The Near East is part of the original range of the wild pig ( Sus scrofa L.), which was evidently used in various places for breeding the domestic pig; the earliest examples date from the 7th millennium BC [6. 73]. The pig (Sumerian šaḫ(a); Akkadian šaḫû [3]) was of some significance during most periods and in most regions of the Near East, probably esp. as a provider of meat. The few pictorial representations usually depict wild pigs. Pigs are mentioned from the beginning of written records in Mesopotamia…

Onasander

(561 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
(Ονάσανδρος; Onásandros). [German version] [1] Physician on Cos, c. 250 BC Public physician of Cos in c. 250 BC. As a resident of Cos without citizens' rights, he apprenticed with a public physician ( archiatrós ) in Halasarna, became his assistant and followed him to Cos when he was chosen public doctor there. There he opened his own practice but continued to treat his old patients from Halasarna, at times for nothing. The inscription documenting his career is one of the most informative ones about physicians to survive from antiquity. Nutton, Vivian (London) Bibliography  R. Herzog, Dec…

Marble

(4,101 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Schneider, Rolf Michael (Cambridge)
[German version] I. Terminology, properties, identification Geologically speaking, marble is a metamorphic rock of crystalline structure (average crystal size 0.3 to 1.0 mm) and variable translucency, derived by mediumor high-level metamorphosis from limestone and dolomite [21. 17-20]. The ancient terms μάρμαρον/ mármaron (originally masc. μάρμαρος/ mármaros = ‘gleaming stone’; later attested in all three genders) and Latin marmor, however, mean all white and coloured rocks capable of being polished, including hard rocks such as granite, greywacke and…

Hunting

(1,391 words)

Author(s): Galter, Hannes D. (Graz) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Archaeological finds attest to battues with traps in the Middle East from the 7th millennium BC onwards. On the other hand, there is only a little cuneiform evidence of the occupation of the hunter, e.g. in the  Gilgamesh Epic (TUAT 3. 676, I iii 9ff.). Wild cattle, wild goats, wild donkeys, gazelles, lions,  elephants and many other animals were hunted. As hunting weapons, people used traps, nets and snares as well as bows and arrows, throwing-sticks, lances, sword…

Nutrition

(3,630 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Englund, Robert K. (Berlin)
[German version] I. General With respect to human history, nutrition, generally defined as the intake of substances for the sustenance, procreation and growth of living organisms, should not in any way be understood or investigated only as a physiological process, but must be seen in the context of a multiplicity of economic, social, cultural and religious factors. The choice of foodstuffs in a society is made not only with regard to their nutritional value, but also based on social and religious va…

Hyginus, C. Iulius

(841 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Life and Work a) A philologist and polymath of the Augustan era from Spain or Alexandria; a freedman of Augustus who served as the prefect of the Palatine library after 28 BC while simultaneously engaging in extensive teaching activities (for biography, cf. Suet. Gram. 20). Nevertheless, he had to be supported his whole life by Clodius [II 6] Licinus and died in poverty. Ov. Tr. 3,14 is addressed to him. His substantial œuvre includes works of philology (comm. to the Propempticon Pollionis of  Helvius [I 3] Cinna; discussion of selected passages of  Vergili…

Rations

(515 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East In the Ancient Near Eastern oikos or palace economy, the majority or (large) parts of the population were integrated into the institutional households of temples and/or palaces as direct dependents (the extent varied according to region and period). They were provided with the rations of natural produce (grain, oil, wool) guaranteeing them the level of subsistence necessary for their reproduction. In Mesopotamia, these rations of produce were in part supplemented, and in certain periods replaced, by the allocation of areas of land ( c. 6 ha.) as…

Tactics

(952 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Greece Tactics are understood as the planning and execution of military operations, such as marching and battles. Before the emergence of the phalanx , no tactical organization of the army is discernible. The battle formation of the phalanx, however, required the army to be divided into subunits, with a marching order, an ordered array in file and a clear system of orders. Ancient historians and military writers document various marching orders and possible transitions (often probably rather remote from reality) fr…

Technology

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin)
[German version] I. Definition of technology Technology describes the ensemble of tools, devices and procedures used for the acquisition and transformation of materials, the production and transportation of foodstuffs and consumables, the erection of structures, the provision of infrastructure, and the storage of information. The devices and procedures employed in different areas of technology are not independent of one another; rather, they constitute a technological complex with many interdependenci…

Oils for cooking

(2,001 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt In the Ancient Orient and Egypt, oil was not only part of human nutrition (e.g. the daily rations for the population dependent on central institutions), but was also used as body oil, for making scent, for embalming (in Egypt), for medicinal purposes, in craft production, as lamp oil and in the cultic and ritual sphere (e.g. unction for rulers in Israel: 1 Sam 10,1; 16,3; not in Mesopotamia). Depending on the regionally varying agronomic and climatic conditions, oil was obtained from a number of plants: whereas numerous olei…

Mineral Resources

(1,831 words)

Author(s): Tichy, Franz (Erlangen) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Geography Compared with Europe as a whole and other continents, the mainlands and islands of the Mediterranean are poor in valuable mineral resources; furthermore, deposits of precious metals and marble are limited to only a few regions. Many of the deposits were exploited in antiquity or during the Middle Ages, especially wherever they were easily accessible along the coasts. The Phoenicians traveled to obtain tin ore from Iberia as early as the Bronze Age, and the Greeks transp…

Trireme

(850 words)

Author(s): Tilley, Alec F. | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
(τριήρης/ triḗrēs; Lat. trieris, triremis;from tri- 'three' and Gr. eretmón, Lat. remus 'oar'). [German version] I. History of the Trireme From the battle off Salamis [1] (480 BC) to the Hellenistic age, the trireme of the Classical period was the most battle-worthy warship of the eastern Mediterranean region. It was developed from the elongated boats of the archaic period, which possessed one or two banks of oars on both sides and were used in Naval warfare. The tactical goal in naval battles was to sink enemy shi…

Veterans

(1,638 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | O.S.
(Latin veterani). [German version] I. Republic The Roman army in the Republican Period was a militia; all citizens with means exceeding the defined level (cf. Census) were obliged to provide combat service in the military; the term of service depended on military requirements, and was not precisely defined. It was the custom for soldiers released from the army after military service to return to their farms, and to be available again for recruitment upon the outbreak of another war (Pol. 6,19-26; Liv.…

Taberna

(94 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Type of building Latin term for buildings, both urban and rural, used for storage, craft production, selling goods, offering drinks, meals and lodging, and also as living space. Storage economy; Workshop; Inn Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) [German version] [2] T. Frigida Road station in Etruria on the Via Aemilia Scauri between Pisae and Luna at the crossing over the Frigidus (modern Frigido), modern San Leonardo in Frigido. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Banti, Luni, 1937, 71  G. De Santis Alvisi, Questioni lunensi, in: Centro Studi Lunensi. …
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