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Ektenia

(277 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] “Ektenia” is derived from Gk ἐκτενής/ ektenḗs, lit. “outstretched, unceasing, fervent” (cf. ¶ Acts 12:5). In Orthodox worship, it designates the intercessions that are sung in antiphonous alternation, in the form of a litany. The deacon (Diaconate: VII) stands in the nave of the church with his (right) hand outstretched, and recites the petitions, whereupon the worshipers or the chorus respond with Kyrie eleison or “Grant [this], O Lord.” The Orthodox liturgy, the hourly prayers as well as other…

Užhorod

(192 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Užgorod (Czech Užhorod, Hung. Ungvár), in western Ukraine, belonged politically to the kingdom of Hungary from the Middle Ages to 1918; it went to Czechoslovakia in 1919 but was returned to Hungary in 1940. It was in the Soviet Union after 1945 and has been in independent Ukraine since 1991. In the conflict between Habsburg pressure for Catholic union and the pressure of the Reformed local rulers of Transylvania for conversion, on Apr 23, 1646, 63 priests of the Orthodox diocese o…

Hieromonk

(132 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] A hieromonk (Gk ἱερομόναχος/ hieromónachos) is an Orthodox monk (Monasticism: III) who also serves as a priest (Priesthood: III, 3). Since its beginnings in Late Antiquity, Eastern monasticism has remained fundamentally a separate group within the church, distinct from both clergy (Clergy and laity: I, 2) and laity (III, 2). Therefore the monks allow only as many of their number to be ordained as priests as are absolutely necessary for the liturgy of the hours (IV) and the eucharistic…

Sremski Karlovci

(196 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (Hung. Karlócza), a city on the Danube in Syrmia (Srem), Serbia, a Baroque ecclesiastical center of Orthodox Serbs within the Catholic Habsburg empire. From 1713 to 1920, it was a metropolitan (II) see, autocephalous (Autocephaly) after the abolition of the patriarchate of Peć in 1766. With the help of Russian theologians from Kiev, Sremski Karlovci became an intellectual and theological center (seminary opened in 1774, the first Serbian Gymnasium in 1791). The “national church co…

Iaşi

(222 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Iaşi, a city in eastern Romania. Together with Suceava (Polish: Suczawa), Iaşi was intermittently the seat of the dukes and metropolitans of Moldavia from the 15th century onward, and became their permanent seat at the end of the 16th century. In 1642 a synod met in Iaşi which passed the so-called Confessio Orthodoxa (Articles of Faith: II) of P. Mogila. Iaşi stood under Greek (Phanariot) and partly under Russian influence until the 19th century. The transition to the Romanian-national cultural language was effected in Iaşi around …

Peć

(168 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Peć, city on the Bistrica in Kosovo. It appears in documents from the early 13th century, when the archbishop of Žiča moved his see to Peć. Tsar Stefan Dushan (1331–1355) of Serbia named Archbishop Janićije I patriarch of the Serbs and Greeks, thus creating the first Serbian patriarchate of Peć, not recognized by Constantinople. The so-called Patriaršija, with the churches of the Holy Apostles (c. 1230), the Theotokos (before 1337), and St. Demetrius (before 1324), still bears witness to the golden age of Serbo-Byzantine art. After 138…

Metropolitan

(919 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg | Schneider, Johann
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Orthodox Canon Law I. Early Church The metropolitanate is an outgrowth of the emergence of synods, which in the late 2nd century slowly began to develop into the most important regional ecclesiastical authorities (see also Church polity: I, 3.a). As soon as synods began to assemble regularly on a provincial level (Ecclesiastical province), the bishop of the provincial capital acquired new authority, which increasingly became legally codified. At the beginning of the 4…

Seelsorge

(3,865 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Möller, Christian | Schneider, Johann
1. Einleitung S. bezeichnet den Beistand kirchlicher Amtspersonen (Seelsorger) für Einzelne und Gruppen von Gläubigen in Fragen des Glaubens und der relig. Lebensgestaltung. In der Regula pastoralis (»Pastoralregel«, um 590) Papst Gregors I., der bis in die Nz. maßgeblichen S.-Anleitung, werden dafür die Begriffe cura pastoralis (lat.; »Hirtensorge«; davon engl. pastoral care, franz. la pastorale) und regimen animarum (»Seelenleitung«) verwendet. Das wörtliche lat. Äquivalent von S., cura animarum, begegnet erst im FrühMA und bestimmte von da an den kirchl. Spr…

Pietismus

(3,268 words)

Author(s): Breul, Wolfgang | Waczkat, Andreas | Schneider, Johann
1. Evangelische Kirchen 1.1. Begriff und Abgrenzung Der aus dem lat. pietas ( ›Frömmigkeit‹) abgeleitete Begriff P. setzte sich seit der sog. Leipziger Bewegung um August Hermann Francke (1689/90) zur Bezeichnung der bedeutendsten religiösen Reformbewegung innerhalb des kontinentaleurop. Protestantismus nach der Reformation durch. Unter Aufnahme v. a. vorreformatorischer und radikaler Einflüsse des 16. und 17. Jh.s (Täufer; Spiritualisten) zielte der P. auf eine Weiterführung der Reformation der Lehre durch eine ›Reformation des Lebens‹. Trotz unterschiedlicher kon…

Pfarramt

(2,095 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Weyel, Birgit | Oswalt, Julia | Schneider, Johann
1. Begriff und geschichtliche Entwicklung bis zum 15. Jh. P. bezeichnet zum einen das Amt des Pfarrers, zum anderen das Pfarrhaus als Verwaltungszentrum einer Pfarrei, die entweder die Gläubigen eines bestimmten Bezirks (Territorialgemeinde) oder einer bestimmten Gruppe (Personalgemeinde) umfasst (zur Etymologie der dt. Worte Pfarrei und Pfarrer vgl. [4. 153]). Die christl. Gemeinden der Antike, deren Territorium mit dem einer Stadt identisch war, wurden von einem Bischof unter Mithilfe weiterer Kleriker geleitet. Als das Christentum sich auch…

Ordination and Post-Ordination Education and Training

(5,505 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Karl-Adolf | Rau, Stefan | Schneider, Johann | Pobee, John
[German Version] I. Early Church and Middle Ages – II. Protestantism (Germany) – III. Roman Catholic Church after Trent – IV. Orthodox Church – V. Non-Catholic Churches outside Germany I. Early Church and Middle Ages The New Testament contains scattered statements about the personal qualifications required of someone holding ministerial office in the church (e.g. 1 Tim 3:2–13; Tit 1:6–9) but says nothing about their training. Since the gospel implies understanding and address persons, the question of the theological education and…

Pfarrer-/Pfarrerinnenaus- und -weiterbildung

(4,859 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Karl-Adolf | Rau, Stefan | Schneider, Johann | Pobee, John
[English Version] I. Altertum und Mittelalter Das NT enthält zwar einzelne auf die Person bezogene Angaben über die Voraussetzung zur Übernahme eines kirchl. Amtes (vgl.1Tim 3,2–13 oder Tit 1,6–9), aber keine Hinweise zur Ausbildung. Da das Evangelium Verstehen impliziert und die Person betrifft, mußte sich die Frage nach der theologischen Ausbildung und spirituellen Prägung derer, die zu seiner öfftl. Weitergabe berufen werden, früher oder später stellen. Darin deuten sich die beiden Pole Bildung und Frömmigkeit an, die spannungsvoll aufeinander bezogen sein wollen. Angehe…

Piety

(3,477 words)

Author(s): Jödicke, Ansgar | Sparn, Walter | Koch, Traugott | Seiferlein, Alfred | Weismayer, Josef | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Piety (recently often also “spirituality”) is understood, first, as the forms of expression of lived religiosity; research in this area is particularly the subject of folklore studies and church history for the idividual, secondly, piety has to do with particular qualities of feeling, such as reverence, with which the psychology of religion (Gruehn, Sundén) is concerned. Objective and subjective components are combined in various ways in the historical developme…

Clergy and Laity

(3,439 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter | Schneider, Johann | Winkler, Eberhard | Guder, Darrell | Denis, Philippe | Et al.
[German Version] I. European Christian Churches – II. Churches Worldwide – III. Islam I. European Christian Churches 1. Catholic Church A division of the church into clergy and laity does not coincide with New Testament evidence. The designation “laity” derives from laikós, the adjective form of λαός/ laós, “people.” In the Septuagint (LXX), this term describes the people of Israel in contrast to the (pagan) nations. In all important passages in the NT, it describes the people of God consisting of believers and dis…

Clothing and Vestments

(3,745 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika | Köpf, Ulrich | Allen Jr., Horrace T. | Schneider, Johann | Miletto, Gianfranco
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Judaism I. Religious Studies 1. General Clothing fulfills the need for ornamentation and presentation, protection against the weather, and, in certain cases, magic. Appearance and materials follow climatic conditions, economic and technical capabilities (sewing, weaving, etc.), social or fashion conventions, and can be specified according to function (professional attire) or situation (festal attire). Clothing increases the complexity of the optical appearance of its ¶ wearer. It visualizes and makes m…

Church Polity

(28,214 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich | Dingel, Irene | Ohst, Martin | Weitlauff, Manfred | Pirson, Dietrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages – III. Reformation – IV. Modern Period – V. Present – VI. Practical Theology I. Early Church The church polity projected and in part realized in early Christianity is one of the most significant institutional inventions of Late Antiquity. Since it has survived into the present, with many modifications and variations, it also represents an element of continuity between the ancient world and the modern world. Church polity as used here means all the institutions affecting the external organization of early Ch…

Episcopal Titles

(878 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm | Ohme, Heinz | Müller, Ludger | Pree, Helmuth | Schima, Stefan | Et al.
[German Version] I. Auxiliary Bishop – II. Chorbishop – III. Regional Bishop – IV. Suffragan Bishop – V. Titular Bishop – VI. Vicar Bishop I. Auxiliary Bishop An auxiliary bishop is a bishop appointed at the request of a diocesan bishop to assist him in administration of the diocese. His rights, duties, and official functions are defined by canon law ( CIC cc. 403–411) and his letter of appointment. An auxiliary bishop is a member of the Bishops' Conference. Unlike a coadjutor, an auxiliary bishop does not have the right of succession. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography J. Listl, “Koadjutor-…

Laity

(5,415 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Karrer, Leo | Schneider, Johann | Plasger, Georg | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. North America – VI. Missiology I. Religious Studies Generally speaking, the term laity (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”) denotes adherents of a religious tradition who do not act as religious specialists or function within a defined socio-religious class (Priesthood, Monasticism). The use of the term is therefore inappropriate in religions without religious specialists, for example Islam. In some religions, the laity, who…
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