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Coin of account

(963 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Konrad
A coin of account is a monetary unit used only administratively and only for purposes of calculation or measurement. This distinguishes it from minted specie coins, which have purchasing power and serve concretely as media of exchange. The coins of account in use from the Middle Ages until the 18th century and to some extent into the 19th made it possible to record the prices of goods and the extent of payment transactions over long periods of time uniformly and in relatively long-lived units despite the multiplicity of early modern currencies,Historians working with archival mate…
Date: 2019-10-14

Mark

(788 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Konrad
Like the pound, the mark in the early modern period was (1) a unit of mass, (2) a counting unit, and (3) a minted coin.(1) As a unit of mass, the mark was also the basis of coinage systems (Weights and measures). In Central Europe, the Cologne Mark ( c. 233 g) [9] gained general acceptance over other regional mark weights like the Nuremberg Mark ( c. 255 g) and the Vienna Mark ( c. 280 g), and the Esslingen  Reichsmünzordnung (Imperial Coinage Ordinance) of 1524 declared it the basic coin weight of the Holy Roman Empire. Standard mark weights were available at the office…
Date: 2019-10-14

Ducat

(927 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Konrad
One of the successful, early European gold coins of the Middle Ages was the zecchino (“sequin”; from Italian  zecca/zecha, coin) minted from 1284 in Venice. The obverse shows the Doge kneeling before St. Mark, the reverse a standing Christ figure - both within a mandorla. The coins acquired the name “ducat” because of the last word of the inscription ( Sit tibi Christe datus quem tu regis iste ducatus = “O, Christ, let this duchy, which you rule, be dedicated unto you”). Venetian ducats were made of the finest gold that was possible to refine at the time, an…
Date: 2019-10-14

Kipper und Wipper

(1,175 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Konrad
1. DefinitionThe term  Kipper und Wipper was first used for a monetary crisis from 1619 to 1623 centered in the Old Empire. It came from  Geldkippe, a convenient and common assay balance (Scales) used to identify undebased coins in circulation. They would then be ausgekippt (from Low German  kippen, “to lop”) or  gewippt (“teetered”) from the balance, melted down, and reminted as debased coins. This practice was illegal, but the unequal weights of circulating coins made it common well into the 19th century, part of the speculation engaged …
Date: 2019-10-14

Guilder (gold)

(950 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Konrad
Like the ducat, the guilder originated in 13th-century Italy. It was derived from the coin minted by the city of Florence, also called a florin (Ital. fiorino), on which the lily, the emblem of the city, was depicted, along with John the Baptist. Initially it consisted of fine gold and weighed about 3.54 grams. The florin spread rapidly and after 1325 was also minted in Hungary and after the mid-14th century in the Holy Roman Empire as well. After the Rhenish Coinage Union was established (1385/1386) by the electors of …
Date: 2019-10-14

Bimetallism

(713 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Konrad
Bimetallism (double currency) denotes a monetary system (Currency) in which two coin metals circulate as legal tender, with a fixed official rate of exchange between them. In monometallic currencies (Monometallism), establishing the exchange rate was relatively simple: one metal (Gold or Silver) was the currency metal, and Coin of the other metal were valued on the basis of the currency metal in accordance with the gold-silver ratio at the time, which depended on metal prices. In the Holy Roman …
Date: 2019-10-14

Crown (coin)

(841 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Konrad
The monetary history of Europe (Money economy) recognizes a variety of gold and silver coins called crowns, with diverse roots. The earliest is the French gold crown ( couronne dor), which was first minted in 1385 with a crowned shield with fleurs-de-lis on the obverse and initially contained 5.55 g of fine gold. Its predecessor was the gold écu d’or (“gold shield”) first minted in 1337. After repeated changes of weight, in 1475 under King Louis XI the couronne d’or with a troy weight of 0.963 g, a normal gross weight of 3.496 g, and a net weight of 3.367 g was minted (Co…
Date: 2019-10-14

Franc

(639 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Konrad
Various coins have been minted with the denomination of franken, or  franc (the origin of the word is unclear, presumably from “France”) . As the name indicates, the coins originated in France; the oldest are 14th-century French gold coins. The French king John II authorized the  franc à cheval (with the figure of a king on horseback), along with other gold coins; and his successor Charles V added the  franc à pied (with the figure of a standing king), valued at a  livre tournois (“Tournois pound,” from Latin  libra). Regulations stipulated that they be made of pure gold wit…
Date: 2019-10-14

Münze

(3,755 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Konrad | Fried, Torsten
1. BegriffDie M. (von lat. moneta) war in der europ. Nz. lange weitgehend identisch mit Geld (Geldwirtschaft). Es gab zwar bereits im MA Formen bargeldlosen Zahlungsverkehrs wie den Wechsel oder Giroverkehre und auch Wertpapiere wie Schuldverschreibungen (Obligationen). Ab der zweiten Hälfte des 17. Jh.s wurden zudem erste Formen von Papiergeld verwendet, zuerst in Schweden nach 1661. Es galt jedoch noch bis weit ins 19. Jh. nicht als Geld im eigentlichen Sinne, sondern als »Geldsurrogat«. Unter M. ist aber auch die M.-Stätte zu verstehen (s. u. 3.).Konrad Schneider2. Zahlungs…
Date: 2019-11-19

Coin

(4,085 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Konrad | Fried, Torsten
1. ConceptThe coin (from Latin  cuneus via OF  coing, “wedge,” i.e. the wedge-shaped die used to stamp metal) was long synonymous with money in the early modern period (Money economy), although even in the Middle Ages there were some forms of cashless transaction (Payment transactions), such as bill of exchange, giro transactions, and securities like bonds of debt (obligations). The first forms of paper money came into use from the second half of the 17th century, first in Sweden after 1661. Until long…
Date: 2019-10-14
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