Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)" )' returned 166 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Zaberganes

(79 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ζαβεργάνης/ Zabergánēs). In 531 the Persian diplomat Z. succeeded in annihilating his rival Mebodes (Procop. BP 1,23,25 f.). In 540 he took part in the conquest of Antioch [1] (Procop. Pers. 2,8,30-32), and shortly afterwards he received a letter from the empress Theodora [2] with a request to mediate peace (Procop. Arc. 2,32-35). In 544 he led negotiations with citizens from Edessa [2], which was under siege (Procop. Pers. 2,26,16-19). PLRE 3B, 1410. Sassanids Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Xerxes

(685 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Ξέρξης/ Xérxēs; Old Persian Xšayāršā, 'ruling over heroes'). [German version] [1] X. I Achaemenid great king (486-465 BC), son of Darius [1] I and Atossa [1]. 'Born in the purple', X. was designated by his father as his successor (XPf 31 ff. = [6. 81-85]; Hdt. 7,2 f.; Porphyrogénnētos ). At the beginning of his reign he defeated an uprising in Egypt (Hdt. 7,3), and later the rebellions of Šamaš-Erība and Bēl-Šimmanni in Babylonia [3. 361 ff.]. A campaign to Greece (in 480/79 BC) - about which only accounts from the…

Axidares

(92 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Son of the Parthian king Pacorus, who was made king of Armenia in about AD 110 by his father. When Osroes ousted Pacorus, A. also lost his throne to his own brother Parthamasiris. During the subsequent period, he seems to have made efforts to prevent contact being made between Parthamasiris and his Roman sovereign  Trajanus and, in so doing, to gain some recognition for himself. He was unsuccessful in this respect. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Karras-Klapproth, Prosopographische Studien zur Gesch. des Partherreiches, 1988 A. Stein, s.v. Exedares,…

Artabannes

(220 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Commander serving under the Armenian king Arsaces II (mid-4th cent. AD) Commander serving under the Armenian king Arsaces II, who fled to Shapur II and was later appointed, together with  Cylaces, as the governor of Armenia. Both soon went over to the side of Arsaces' son  Pap, who first found refuge with the Romans, but was assigned to Armenia by  Valens at the request of A. and Cylaces. During a renewed Persian attack, A. and Cylaces along with Pap fled to the mountains. A. then receive…

Rothari

(118 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] The Arian (Arianism) of Harudic descent was the duke of Brixia when he succeeded Arioald as king of the Langobardi in AD 636. Under his rule, the Ligurian coast from the city of Luna [3] up to the Frankish border and Opitergium in Venetia were captured. A campaign against the exarchate of Ravenna (late 643) was stalled following a battle on the river Scultenna (Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 4,42; 45; 47). On 22 November 643, R. decreed the Edictus R. , a collection of Langobardic legal conventions. R. died in 652. PLRE, 3B, 1096. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliog…

Sapor

(558 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Persian Šāpūr, Greek Σαπώρης/ Sapṓrēs). [German version] [1] I Son of Ardashir [1] and Great King of Persia AD 240/242-272, of the dynasty of the Sassanids. The main source for his reign is the trilingual inscription (Middle Persian, Parthian, Greek) discovered in 1936-1939 on the Kaba-ye Zardošt in Naqš-e Rostam (near Persepolis), the so-called Res Gestae Divi Saporis (= RGDS; [1. 284-371]; Trilingual inscriptions). S. defeated Gordianus [3] III in 244 at Misichē (Pirisabora) in Assyria; Gordianus died under suspicious circumstances. S. compelled t…

Septimius

(3,206 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Et al.
Nomen gentile, probably originally Etruscan, occurred at Rome only from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A certain S. from Camerinum was commissioned to recruit followers for Catilina at Picenum in 63 BC, presumably because he was of the Umbrian-Picenan municipal nobility (cf. CIL I2 1921; 1929) (Sall. Catil. 27,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Friend of Horace's; he hoped to enter the cohors amicorum of a member of the imperial household through his relationship with the latter (Hor. Carm.…

Ariarathes

(814 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀριαράθης/ Ariaráthēs). Name of kings of Cappadocia. [German version] [1] A. I A. I, b. 405/4 BC, became satrap of Northern Cappadocia under Artaxerxes [3] III, and retained the position under the latter's successors and during the Macedonian conquest (v. Alexander [4] the Great). In 322 BC, he was defeated by Perdiccas [4], who had him executed. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] A. II Son of Orophernes [1], nephew and adoptive son of A. [1], defeated the Seleucid strategos Amyntas around 280 BC [1. 93 f.] with the assistance of Orontes [4] III of Armeni…

Mithropastes

(122 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Μιθροπάστης; Mithropástēs). Son of the satrap Arsites of Phrygia Minor. M. fled from Darius III (Darius [3]) to the island of Ogyris (modern Maṣīra) in the Red Sea before 330 BC, and from there to Mazenes, on the isle of Oaracta (modern Kism) in the Persian Gulf. When Nearchus [2] landed there in 325/4, they both joined him. M. then participated in the subsequent journey across the Persian Gulf, during which he informed Nearchus about the island of Ogyris, which he had visited (Nearchus, FGrH 133 F 27; 28). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography H. Schiwek, Der Persisc…

Suren

(110 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Name of an Iranian noble family [1], attested from the 1st cent. BC (Plut. Crassus 21 et passim) until the 9th cent. AD [2]. The S. crowned the Parthian kings and served as commanders-in-chief under the Arsacids and Sassanids. It remains unclear whether the S. owned estates in Sacastane and thereby had family connections with the Indo-Parthian dynasty (as in [3]). Abdagaeses; Sinnaces Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography 1 R. Schmitt, Sûrên aber Kârin. Zu den Namen zweier Parthergeschlechter, in: Münchner Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 42, 1983, 197-205 2 W.…

Sauromaces

(140 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] A pro-Roman king of Iberia [1] who was expelled in AD 368/9 by Sapor [2] II (Amm. Marc. 27,12,4). In 370, Valens [2] had S. brought back by Terentius [II 1], and Aspacures, S.' pro-Persian cousin, arranged for the territory along the Cyrus [5] to be divided between them, so S. received only the part bordering on Armenia and the Lazi (Amm. Marc. 27,12,16 f.). This arrangement was approved by the emperor but aroused the anger of the great king, who wanted to maintain the rule of his…

Artavasdes

(727 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀρταουάσδης; Artaouásdēs). [German version] [1] I. King of Armenia between 160 and 120 BC King of Armenia between 160 and 120 BC. He was the son of Artaxias I and father (not brother) of Tigranes I. Toward the end of his rule, he was attacked by the Arsacid  Mithridates II (Just. Epit. 42,2,6), which led to the handing over of his grandson Tigranes II to the Parthians as a hostage. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] II. King of Armenia between (55-34 BC) (also called Artabazes, Ἀρταβάζης; Artabázēs) as son and successor to Tigranes II. Began his rule as king of Arm…

Abdagaeses

(99 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Parthian noble from the house of Suren, who in AD 36 supported the counter-king  Tiridates against  Artabanus [5] II and after Tiridates' failure fled to Syria (Tac. Ann. 6,31 and passim). Whether he is identical to the homonymous troop leader of Artabanus (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,9,4) is just as uncertain as his possible relation to the Indo-Parthian King Abdagases (1st cent. AD). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography E. Herzfeld, in: AMI 4, 1932, 75 ff. M. Karras-Klapproth, Prosopographische Studien zur Gesch. des Partherreiches, 1988 J. Markwart, in: ZDMG 49…

Pap(a)

(206 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Pahlavi pāp, bāb, ‘father’). Son of the Armenian king Arsaces [4] II and Pharandsem of Siwnik'. After his father was captured, P. fled to Valens, who restored him as ruler of Armenia in the same year (AD 369) with the support of the comes et dux Terentius (Amm. Marc. 27,12,9-10). In the following,  Sapor [2] II managed to persuade P. to implement anti-Roman measures. P. thus dispatched the heads of his ministers Cylaces and Artabannes [1] to the Persian king (Amm. Marc. 27,12,14). However, the poisoning of the katholikós Nersēh by the king as claimed by Armenian …

Gordius

(439 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Γόρδιος; Górdios). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the Phrygian state Mythical founder of the Phrygian state and eponymous hero of its capital  Gordium. When birds flew around him as he was ploughing, he wanted to find out the significance of the sign from the seers in the city. A beautiful girl from a family of seers whom he asked for information at the city gate interpreted the sign as a promise of royal honour and offered to marry him. In order to end a civil war, the  Phrygians followed Zeus'…

Abgar

(191 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
The name of several kings of Osroene in the era from 94 BC to AD 244. Worthy of notice are: [German version] [1] II. Ariamnes bar Abgar (68-53 BC) A. II Ariamnes bar Abgar, reigned 68-53 BC. He was accused by the Romans of having caused the catastrophe of Crassus. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] V Ukkāmā (the Black) (4BC to 50 AD) A. V Ukkāmā (the Black), 4 BC - AD 7 and AD 13-50; played a dubious role in the Parthian struggle for the throne between Gotarzes II and Meherdates. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [3] VIII, the Great (77-212 AD) A. VIII, the Great, 177-21…

Mithrenes

(106 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Μιθρήνης; Mithrḗnēs). Eminent Persian, who surrendered the castle of Sardis to  Alexander [4] the Great in 334 BC (Arr. Anab. 1,17,3f.; Diod. Sic. 17,21,7: Mithrínēs; Dion Chrys. 73,2: Mithránēs). After having accepted him as an honoured member of his retinue and having used him in diplomatic service (Curt. 3,12,6), Alexander appointed him satrap of Armenia, which had not yet been conquered (Arr. Anab. 3,16,5; Diod. Sic. 17,64,6; Curt. 5,1,44 and 8,12), in 331/330. However, the Orontides (Orontes IV), of wh…

Cavades

(263 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] C.I. Sassanid king since 488 AD Sassanid king from AD 488, son of  Perozes. After he had first played individual powerful families off against each other, he supported the social-religious movement of  Mazdac in order to destroy the power of the aristocracy. This led in 496 to a conspiracy of the Zarathustrian clergy with the higher nobility, in the course of which C.'s brother Zamasphes was elevated to the throne whilst he himself disappeared in the ‘castle of oblivion’. C. managed…

Aspurgos

(145 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ἀσποῦργος; Aspoûrgos). Although this Bosporan king is unknown to literary sources, his reign can be attested for AD 10/11-38/9. A. was therefore the (direct?) successor to his mother  Dynamis, who reigned until AD 7/8. The name of his father is given in inscriptions as Ἀσάνδροχος/Asándrochos (IOSPE II 36), doubtless a variant of  Asander [3]. A. was not acknowledged by Rome until he appeared there in person [1. 337 with n. 8]. A. was the father of the later Bosporan king Cotys [II…

Perozes

(326 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Greek Περόζης; Perózēs). [German version] [1] P.I. Persian king of kings, 459-484 AD (Arabic Fīrūz). Persian Great King (AD 459-484), son of Yazdgird II. His reign is characterised by disputes with tribes of Hunni, who were already supporting a campaign for the throne against Hormisdas [5] III. In about AD 465 P. got into conflict with king Kunchas of the Kidarites, to whom he sent a woman to be his wife, claiming that she was his sister (Priscus fr. 41 Blockley). More dangerous to him were the Hephthalitae,…
▲   Back to top   ▲