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Unbelief

(1,677 words)

Author(s): Schulz, Heiko
[German Version] I. Philosophy The term unbelief may be used either descriptively and neutrally or evaluatively (usually pejoratively). In either case, its grammar is dependent on the concept of belief or faith. This grammar comprises two structural elements: one objective (“believe something,” “believe that p”), the other subjective (“ believe something,” “ believe that p,” in the sense of believing that an envisaged situation is true). The basic forms of unbelief can be derived from these two elements: nescience is neither belief nor “belief that.” In contrast, both forms of …

Interiority

(684 words)

Author(s): Schulz, Heiko
[German Version] I The term interiority or inwardness (Ger. Innerlichkeit) was used by F.G. Klopstock and J.W. v. Goethe, but it was only in G.W.F. Hegel that it gained the interpretive configuration that subsequently became definitive: first, and in the widest sense, the term refers to the subjectivity or the immediate being-within-one's self of the spirit (III). Wherever there is spirit, there is interiority, and vice versa, for interiority is nothing other than the spirit's “returning into itself” ( Philosophie der Geschichte, 340). Second, thus defined the term serves as…

Unglaube

(1,509 words)

Author(s): Schulz, Heiko
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Der Terminus U. wird entweder deskriptiv bzw. einstellungsneutral oder (in der Regel pejorativ) wertend gebraucht. In beiden Fällen ist seine Grammatik von der des Glaubensbegriffs (Glaube) abhängig. Dieser umfaßt zwei Strukturmomente: ein gegenstandstheoretisches (» etwas glauben«; »glauben, daß p«) und ein einstellungstheoretisches (» glauben, daß p«, im Sinne des Fürwahrhaltens eines vorgestellten Sachverhaltes). Die Grundformen des U. lassen sich von diesen beiden Strukturmomenten ableiten: Unwissenheit ist weder Glaube noch …

Verifikation/Falsifikation

(1,524 words)

Author(s): Bartelborth, Thomas | Keuth, Herbert | Schulz, Heiko
[English Version] I. Naturwissenschaftlich Unter der V. einer physikalischen Hypothese oder Theorie versteht man den empirischen Nachweis, daß die Theorie wahr ist. Viele physikalische Hypothesen sind allerdings Allaussagen, die Behauptungen für potentiell unendlich viele Einzelfälle aufstellen (z.B. Naturgesetze wie: Alle Körper, die erwärmt werden, dehnen sich aus). Sie sind daher niemals im strikten Sinne zu verifizieren, da wir nur endlich viele Fälle tatsächlich überprüfen können. K.R. Popper wies demgegenüber darauf hin, daß wir solche Hypothesen zumin…

Verification/Falsification

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Bartelborth, Thomas | Keuth, Herbert | Schulz, Heiko
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences Verification of a physical hypothesis or theory means empirical demonstration that the theory is true. Many physical hypotheses, however, are universal propositions, which make assertions regarding potentially an infinite number of individual cases, for example laws of nature (Natural law/Law of nature) such as “All bodies that are heated expand.” Therefore they can never be verified in the strict sense, since we can actually test only a finite number of cases. K.R. Popper pointed out, however, that we can at least falsify such hypot…

Anxiety and Fear

(1,909 words)

Author(s): Michaels, Axel | Ringleben, Joachim | Schulz, Heiko | Loder, James E.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies Anxiety (Angst) or fear (anxiety is the deeper but less harmful form of the feeling) – S. Freud scarcely differentiates between the terms – is an alteration in feeling and behavior triggered by pain, actual or expected, loss, or expected punishment. Somatic responses triggered by a perceived threat – perspiration, increased pulse rate, a sense of confinement (cf. Lat. angustus, “narrow, constricted”) – are associated…

Faith

(25,125 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Schulz, Heiko | Kaiser, Otto | Hooker, Morna D. | Jüngel, Eberhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Systematic Theology – V. Practical Theology – VI. Judaism – VII. Islam I. Terminology 1. Religious Studies a. As an emic linguistic term, “faith” is found not only in the context of the Christian West (cf. fides, foi, Glaube, etc.), but also in other religious traditions. The Sanskrit term śraddhā (cf. Pāli saddhā; Avestan zrazdā-) seems to represent an Indo-European etymological pendant to Lat. credo, as demonstrated by the possible reconstruction of Indo-Germanic * k'red-dhē-, “set one's heart o…