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Intoxicating substances

(1,723 words)

Author(s): Schulze, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] I. Definition Intoxicating substances are natural drugs (e.g. henbane) or agents created through technical modification (e.g. alcohol). In antiquity they were almost always derived from plants and their psychotropic effect on the central nervous system ranged from slightly stimulating, causing optical or acoustic hallucinations, libido-enhancing sensations and ecstatic states to a complete loss of consciousness and senses. The physical and psychic form of the enhanced emotional stat…

Alcohol, consumption of

(1,278 words)

Author(s): Schulze, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] I. Introduction Ethanol (C2H5OH, drinking alcohol) was unknown to the ancients in its pure form. There is thus no word for alcohol in Greek or Latin. The term is derived from the Arabic ( al-kuḥl, etym. traceable to the Akkadian guḫlu [1. 272]) and originally denoted a fine, black antimony gloss used to dye the eyebrows. It was Paracelsus (1493/4-1541) who first used the term to refer to the volatile constituent of wine (Alco(h)ol vini). Alcoholic drinks of Antiquity were mead (Greek ὑδρόμελι/ hydrómeli, Latin mulsum) and similar concoctions not only composed of …

Ahron

(257 words)

Author(s): Schulze, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] (Arabic Ahrun ibn Ayan al-Qass (Ibn an-Nadīm, Fihrist 297,3-5); Greek Ἄῤῥων; Árrhōn [2]), Christian physician and presbyter in Alexandria. In the 6th or early 7th cent., A. wrote a Greek medical handbook with 30 sections in the environment of the Alexandrian School [1] already captured by Islamic troops ( Pandectae medicae, the Greek title might have been Σύνταγμα/ Sýntagma [5. 88]), a work which apparently no longer had any resonance in Greco-Byzantine sources and was lost. A certain Gōsiōs first created a Syriac translation (Barhebrae…

Vegetarianism

(546 words)

Author(s): Schulze, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] is documented a number of times and for prominent exponents in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, but cannot be understood in the modern sense of strictly defined veganism (rejection of all animal products, including milk, honey and wool), but rather is usually limited to abstaining from meat consumption; the term is a modern one. On the whole, vegetarianism will not have been an overly noticeable phenomenon in everyday Graeco-Roman life, since meat formed only a small proportion of food anyway. Myth reveals features of a vegetarian (= veg.) way of life in even the e…

Dance

(2,287 words)

Author(s): Schulze, Christian (Bochum) | Schulze, Janine
Schulze, Christian (Bochum) [German version] A. Subject area/Overview (CT) The reception of Greek Antiquity in dance reached its acme at the beginning of the 20th cent. in Europe and the U.S.A. The first studies of movement, undertaken as early as the end of the 19th cent., drew on the classical Greek body image. In 1885, the American G. Stebbins published her theory of movement [25] which was based on the system of motion pedagogy (aesthetic calisthenics) developed by F. Delsarte. Delsarte linked the id…