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(1,501 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
1. Die Bedeutung der Bibel in der NeuzeitDie Neuaufbrüche in allen Sphären der Kultur, die als Charakteristikum der europ. Nz. betrachtet werden, sind ohne Bezug auf die B. nicht zu verstehen. Die Neuorganisation der Gesellschaftsordnungen und Herrschaftsformen (Herrschaft), des Bildungswesens (Bildung) und der Wissenschaft (Wissen und Wissensideale), die neuen Impulse in Kunst und Literatur (Literarische Institutionen) sowie die neuen Interpretationen menschlichen Selbstverständnisses vollzogen sich weitgehend in Auseinandersetzung …
Date: 2019-11-19


(1,743 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
1. The significance of the Bible in the early modern period The new turns in all spheres of culture that are regarded as characteristic of modern Europe cannot be understood without reference to the Bible. The new organization of social orders and forms of rule (Authority), education (Bildung) and science (Knowledge), the new impulses in art and literature (Literary institutions) as well as the new interpretations of human self-understanding were played out largely in dialogue with the Bible as the compreh…
Date: 2019-10-14

Rade, Martin

(554 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] (Apr 4, 1857, Rennersdorf, Oberlausitz – Apr 8, 1940, Frankfurt am Main), theologian, publicist, and politician, representing liberal-social Protestantism. After attending school in Zittau, Rade studied in Leipzig, where he found a teacher and lifelong friend inA. v. Harnack, then a Privatdozent. In 1881 he gained his doctorate with a dissertation on Pope Damasus, in 1882 he became minister in Schönbach, and in 1889 he married Dora Naumann, sister of F. Naumann. Rade was the author of a popular biography of Luther that a…

Systematic Theology

(3,850 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] I. The Concept in Relation to Other Theological Disciplines The task of systematic theology is organized exposition of how the Christian faith interprets reality, with reference to its inherent certainty of its truth (Truth: V; Certainty: III), and the closely associated guidance for action. The word theology makes it clear that the Christian faith’s (IV) interpretation of reality can be expounded appropriately only on the basis of God’s relationship to the world and to human beings, as disclosed by God for the Christian faith; the addition of systematic makes it cl…

Law and Gospel

(2,755 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] The distinction between law and gospel has its theological setting in Luther's discovery at the dawn of the Reformation; from that beginning, it informed the debates within Lutheranism during the Reformation, the attempt to resolve them in the Lutheran articles of faith (I), and the deliberations of Reformed theology. Only in the context of the theological confessionalization in the 19th century and even more in the theological, ecclesiastical, and political debates of the 20th ce…


(757 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] Insight into the createdness of the world and human beings is rooted in the Christian belief in the triune God as Creator of the world (Creation). The confession of God as Creator must thus be formulated as a statement about one's own creatureliness: “I would believe that God has created me together with all creatures” (Luther, Short Catechism, art. 1, BSLK 510). Human experience of oneself and of the world is interpreted entirely in the horizon of one's relationship to God. Thus the structures of the experience of life ar…


(25,967 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] I. Terminology 1. History of the concept. Today the term theology (ϑεολογία/ theología) is usually used in the sense established in Christianity over a long history: it denotes systematic reflection on and explication of the fundamental content of the Christian faith (see II below), as practiced in the context of academic institutions in the various theological disciplines (see IV below) and in relationship to the Christian community of faith in the various churches. This usage is specific to…


(1,291 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics In 20th century theological discussion, the concept of koinonia was used in a programmatic way to characterize the fellowship of the church, but also as a term for the ecumenical communion of churches, and to justify this communion with the nature and work of the Triune God. The foundation of this understanding lies in its correlation with the New Testament's and especially the Pauline understanding of κοινωνία, in which an ¶ already existing understanding of koinonia in early Christianity's Hellenistic environment, i.e.…


(1,749 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology – II. Dogmatic Theology – III. Ethics I. Fundamental Theology Both in fundamental theology and in philosophy, there is considerable dissent as to the justification, significance, and function of consensus (from Lat. consensus, “agreement, unanimity”). In the philosophical context, the recourse to universal consensus, or to the consensus of all rational people, with respect to controversial claims of truth and validity is found as early as Plato ( Gorg. 487e) and Aristotle ( Top. A1, 100b21–22). Cicero ( Div. I 1; Tusc. I 36) invokes it …

Brunner, Emil

(624 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] (Dec 23, 1889, Winterthur – Apr 6, 1966, Zürich) encountered early on the influence of the Religious Socialism movement in the person of H. Kutter, who prepared him for confirmation and later served as his pastoral mentor. He studied theology in Zürich and Berlin (under A. v. Harnack et al.) and took his Lic. theol. in theology with his dissertation “Das Symbolische in der religiösen Erkenntnis.” After serving as a teacher in England, curate, and pastor, he received a grant to study in America at Princeton. ¶ …

Systematische Theologie

(3,591 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[English Version] I. Begriff und Ort im Zusammenhang der theologischen Disziplinen Aufgabe der Syst. Theol. ist die geordnete Entfaltung des Wirklichkeitsverständnisses des christl. Glaubens im Blick auf die in ihm enthaltene Wahrheitsgewißheit (Wahrheit: V., Gewißheit: III.) und die mit dieser aufs engste verbundene Handlungsorientierung. Während der Begriff »Theol.« deutlich macht, daß das Wirklichkeitsverständnis des christl. Glaubens (: IV.) sich nur angemessen aus dem Verhältnis Gottes zur Welt und z…


(23,783 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[English Version] I. Begriffsgeschichte


(1,792 words)

Author(s): Jüngel, Eberhard | Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology – II. Ethics I. Fundamental Theology 1. Authenticity, or genuineness, or truthfulness (Ger. Wahrhaftigkeit), is regarded as being an existential attitude that a person has toward others, …


(1,521 words)

Author(s): Jüngel, Eberhard | Schwöbel, Christoph
[English Version] I. Fundamentaltheologisch 1. W. gilt als eine existentielle Grundhaltung des Menschen gegenüber anderen Personen, gegenüber sich selbst und gegenüber Gott. In sachlicher Nachbarschaft zum Verständnis der Wahrheit als Übereinstimmung (von intellectus und res) gilt W. als Übereinstimmung der Lebensäußerungen eines Menschen mit dem, was wahr ist bzw. er für wahr hält – unbeschadet der Möglichkeit, daß er mit seinem Fürwahrhalten im Irrtum ist…

Theology of Religions

(3,029 words)

Author(s): Vroom, Henk M. | Schwöbel, Christoph | May, John D’Arcy
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion The theology of religions is dedicated to philosophical or theological reflection on the relationships between religions and worldviews (Weltanschauung). Recently three fundamental types of such theology have been distinguished: exclusivism, inclusivism, and pluralism, which understands all religions as responses, in principle on an equal footing, to the experience of (the one?) transcendence (Uniqueness of Christianity, Dialogue: II). It is questionable whether this classification can hold up in this form from the viewpoint of all religions.…


(3,308 words)

Author(s): Kleinschwärzer-Meister, Birgitta | Ivanov, Vladimir | Schwöbel, Christoph | Baier, Klaus A.
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics – III. Practical Theology I. Dogmatics 1. The Catholic Understanding The term “ecumene,” from the present passive participle of the Greek verb οἰκεῖν/ oikeín, “to dwell,” originally denoted the inhabited earth. The use of the term in Scripture is ambiguous: the OT (apolitically) in the sense of “world,” the NT, in addition to that, of the “earth” as the …

Kingdom of God

(8,569 words)

Author(s): Koch, Klaus | Avemarie, Friedrich | Schröter, Jens | Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Early Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Historical Theology and Dogmatics – V. Social Ethics I. Old Testament Although English Bibles have generally used kingdom of God to render Heb. מַלְכּוּת/ malkût and Gk βασιλεία/ basileía with a divine subject (genitive), some modern translators prefer instead a purely functional term such as kingship, without spatial or geographical connotations. Such connotations were definitely implicit in the Hebrew expression, which furthermor…

Theologie der Religionen

(2,934 words)

Author(s): Vroom, Henk M. | Schwöbel, Christoph | May, John D'Arcy
[English Version] I. Religionsphilosophisch Die Theol. der Rel. widmet sich der philos. oder theol. Reflexion der Verhältnisse zw. Religionen und Weltanschauungen. In neuerer Zeit werden die Grundtypen der Theol. der Rel. unterschieden: Exklusivismus, Inklusivismus und Pluralismus (alle Rel. werden verstanden als im Prinzip gleichberechtigte Reaktionen auf die Erfahrung der [einen?] Transzendenz, Absolutheitsanspruch des C…

Reich Gottes

(7,261 words)

Author(s): Koch, Klaus | Avemarie, Friedrich | Schröter, Jens | Schwöbel, Christoph
[English Version] I. Altes TestamentMit R.G. hat Luther hebr. מַלְכּוּת/malkût und griech. βασιλει´α/basileía bei göttlichem Subj. (Genitiv) übers. Moderne Übersetzer bevorzugen statt dessen einen rein funktionalen Begriff, »Königsherrschaft« o. ä., ohne räumlich-geographische Konnotation. Diese war dem hebr. Ausdruck durchaus eigen, der zudem nur im Sg. benutzt wird für Königtum (Königtum Gottes im Alten Testament) mit universalem Anspruch und von מַמְלָכָה/mamlākāh, einer von einem gewöhnlichen König regierten Einheit, abgehoben wird (1Chr 29,30; Esr …
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