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Dok

(100 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] (Δώκ; Dṓk, Δαγών; Dagṓn). Fortress from the Hasmonean period north-west of Jericho, in which Simon Maccabaeus was murdered, together with his two sons, by his son-in-law Ptolemy (1 Macc. 16,15f.; Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,230; Bell. Iud. 1,56). Chariton founded a laura here in AD 340. The name is preserved in the spring Ain Dūk. Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) Bibliography C. Möller, G. Schmitt, Siedlungen Palästinas nach Flavius Josephus, TAVO B 14, 1976, 77f. Y. Hirschfeld, List of Byzantine Monasteries in the Judean Desert, in: FS Virgilio Corbo, 1990, 29ff. G. Schmitt…

Artapanus

(130 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] In the 3rd-2nd cents. BC, A. wrote a ‘Moses novel’ in Egypt (Euseb. Praep. evang. 9,18. 23. 27).  Abraham (astrology), Joseph (agriculture, measures), and  Moses are portrayed as the first inventors. Egypt owes all cultural achievements and the animal cult to Moses, who is identified with Hermes-Thot and Musaeus. Despite certain ‘syncretist’ traits, A. is a Jewish apologist. In his summary of Ex 1-17, A. emphasizes Moses' superiority to Pharao and to Egyptian magicians through miracle tales; he assumes traits of Hellenistic enlightenment (euhemerism). …

Eupolemus

(418 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Jew.-Hell. historian Jewish-Hellenistic historian (mid 2nd cent. BC), probably identical with the E. mentioned in 1 Macc 8,17; in Palestine he wrote a work Περὶ τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ βασιλέων (‘On the Kings of Judea’). Fragments are extant because of the excerpts of  Alexander [23] Polyhistor in Euseb. Praep. evang. and Clem. Al.:  Moses was the ‘first sage’, first legislator and inventor of the script which was passed down to the Phoenicians and Greeks by the Jews (F 1). E. describe…

Eleazarus

(771 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
(Hebrew ælāzār, ‘God has helped’; Greek Ἐλεάζαρος; Eleázaros, Λάζαρος; Lázaros). A name that is particularly common in priestly Jewish families (cf. 2 Macc 6,18-31; 4 Macc 5,1-7,23). [German version] [1] Son of Aaran and father of Pinhas Son of  Aaron and father of Pinhas. In the OT genealogy the ancestor of the Sadducean high priests (Ex 6,23; 28,1; Lev 8ff; Nm 20,25-28; Dt 10,6; 1 Chr 5,29); grave in Gibea (Jos 24,33); considered an ancestor of  Ezra [1] (Ezra 7,5). Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Guardian of the Ark of the Covenant in Kiryat-Yearim Guardian of the…

Ezra

(666 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Priest A priest (Ezra 7,1-5; 7,12), who, on behalf of the Persian high king  Cyrus II, promulgated a legal code that was binding for the members of the Jerusalem cult (Ezra 7). According to theological history, E. came to Jerusalem in 458 or 398 BC with authority for the temple (Ezra 7:7), solved the problem of mixed marriages there (Ezra 9f.) and later gave a definitive reading of the Torah (Neh 8-10). The description ‘E. the scribe’ (Ezra 7:11; Neh 8:1 et passim) resulted in E…

Aristeas

(297 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Epic poet of the island of Proconnesus in the Propontis. The Suda places him in the period of Croesus and Cyrus. In his epic Ἀριμάσπεια ( Arimáspeia), A. tells of his travels into the land of the Scythes and of the Issedones, who lived further north. According to Hdt. 4,13-15, it was the Issedones who told A. about the one-eyed Arimaspeans, about the griffins who guarded the gold, and about the Hyperboreans. A. added to this description of mythical and historical peoples and places an explanation for th…

Antonia

(772 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Hanslik, Rudolf (Vienna) | Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] First spouse of M.  Antonius [I 9] Daughter of C. Antonius Hybrida, cousin and spouse of M.  Antonius [I 9], who divorced her in 47 BC under the pretext of adultery with P. Cornelius Dolabella (Cic. Phil. 2,99; Plut. Ant. 9,1-2). Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) [German version] [2] Daughter of A. [1] and of M.  Antonius [I 9], wife of Pythodorus of Tralleis Daughter of A. [1] and of M.  Antonius [I 9],  between 54 and 49 BC; already 44 engaged to the son of the triumvir Aemilius Lepidus, after the disintegration of this political union her f…

Alcimus

(496 words)

Author(s): Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
(Ἄλκιμος; Álkimos). [German version] [5] Latinus A. Alethius Rhetorician, writer of panagyrics and poet Appears as a famous rhetorician (probably based on a catalogue of model speeches from Bordeaux) in  Sidonius, where he is praised for his oratorical fortitudo: Epist. 5,10,3 (see Jer. Chron. a. Abr. 2371). Probably also the author of a rhetorical handbook that is otherwise no longer distinguishable (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 8, 11, 2; in the same source: origin in Agen; concerning false identifications, see PLRE 2, Alethius 2, against [3…

Dositheus

(947 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Δωσίθεος; Dōsítheos). [German version] [1] Jewish apostate Son of Drimylos, Jewish apostate. He is supposed to have saved the life of Ptolemy IV Philopator before the battle at Raphia (217 BC)(3 Macc. 1,3). Around 240 BC he was one of the two leaders of the royal secretariat and accompanied Ptolemy III in 225-24 on a trip in Egypt; he held the highest priestly office in Hellenistic Egypt around 222 as the priest of Alexander [4] the Great and the deified Ptolemies. PP 1/8,8; 3/9,5100. Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) Bibliography V. Tcherikover, A. Fuks, Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…