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Pitane

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Pergamum | Aegean Koine (Πιτάνη/ Pitánē). Town with two ports in Mysian Aeolis (Hdt. 1,149; Str. 13,1,2; 51; 67; Aeolians [2]) situated in modern Çandarlı. P. was regarded as a legendary foundation of the Amazons (Diod. Sic. 3,55,6) and already existed in the Late Geometric Period according to finds in the necropolis (excavations by E. Akurgal between 1959 and 1965, still unpublished; description in [1]). There have not yet been any officia…

Astyra

(229 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἄστυρα; Ástyra). [German version] [1] Greek polis on the south-western coast of the Troad Greek polis on the south-western coast of the Troad (Scyl. 98), a member of the  Delian League. After that, the importance of the settlement declined (Str. 13,1,65). However, A. is still mentioned in the customs tables of Ephesus [2. 63]. The sanctuary of  Artemis Astyra in A. was subordinate to the nearby Antandrus (Str. ibid.; Xen. Hell. 4,1,41). An exact localization of A. has not yet been achieved [1. 267]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973 2 H. Engelmann…

Mysia

(1,154 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μυσία/ Mýsía). [German version] A. Geography and ethnography Region in the northwest of Asia Minor, named after the Thracian tribe of the Mysi, which had probably migrated there by the 12th cent. BC. Their precise origin is unknown, but like the Phryges they may have migrated from the area of the lower Danube. If we may equate the Thracian Mysi with the later Moesi, then the site of their original settlement can be located south of the Danube in the area of northern Thrace (only in Hdt. 1,171,6 do we read that the C…

Percote

(183 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Περκώτη; Perkṓtē). City in the Troas, to be identified with today's Bergaz Köyü between Abydus and Lampsacus at the mouth of the Practius (today Bergaz Çayı). P. was probably founded in the 1st half of the 5th cent. BC by the neighbouring city of Palaepercote (Str. 13,1,20), already mentioned by Homer (Hom. Il. 2,831; 2,834; 11,229). Themistocles received P. as a fief from the Persian king (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 17a; Phanias FHG 2,296; Ath. 1,54). P. was a member of the Delian League with a contribution of 1,000 drachmai. In 387 BC, the Spartan Antalcidas was hiding f…

Gergis

(272 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γέργις; Gérgis, Gérgitha, Gergíthion, Gérgithos). City in the Troad, not located at the foot of the Balli Dağı as formerly assumed but at the Karıncalı on the Kursak deresi [1. 349]. According to Ath. 6,256 C, it was founded by the descendants of the Troes (Teucri) under the leadership of a Gergithes. In the context of Xerxes' campaign, Herodotus mentions the Gérgithes Teukroí (7,43), to whom he had referred earlier as the successor tribe of the Teucri (Hdt. 5,122). Ceramic finds from Karıncalı go back to the 6th cent. BC. G. is not mentio…

Atarneus

(293 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀταρνεύς; Atarneús). Located in the region of the same name on the coast opposite to  Mytilene, north-east of the modern Dikili, A. was an Ionian polis in Aeolis (Aeoleis) (Plin. HN 37,156), according to Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄταρνα ( Átarna) on the border between  Lydia and  Mysia. Like Assus, the town was centred around a hill of about 200 m in height, upon which the acropolis was situated (modern Kaléh Agili). The safety of the town was ensured by a triple walled circle, dating from the Hellenistic period, parts of whic…

Grynium

(212 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Γρύν(ε)ιον; Grýn(e)ion). Aeolian town in the north of Cyme. According to Herodotus, G. was one of the 11 old Aeolian towns (1,149). Further testimonies: Ἀχαιῶν λιμήν (‘Achaean harbour’), Scyl. 98; cf. portus Grynia, Plin. HN 5,121. As a member of the  Delian League G. paid 1/3 talent. At the end of the 5th cent. BC Gongylus of Eretria, to whom Darius had given the town as a seat for his dynasty (Xen. Hell. 3,1,6), ruled here and in Myrina. In 335 BC Parmenion conquered G. and sold…

Lyrnessus

(116 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Λυρνεσσός; Lyrnessós). Settlement in the Mysian-Trojan border region not localized exactly. Attempts to locate it are based especially on Homer (Il. 2,690f.; 19,60; 20,92; 20,191; Str. 13,1,7; 61) and Pliny (HN 5,122), in whose time L. was destroyed. Older localizations: near Antandrus [1. 217-221], near Havran [2. 301], recently on the Ala Dağ [3. 70f.]. According to Hom. Il. 2,689ff. and 19,60, L. was destroyed by Achilles, who also killed king Mynes and abducted Briseis. Now in detail [3. 66-71]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Troy, 1912 2 H. …

Perperene

(183 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Περπερήνη/ Perperḗnē). City in Aeolian Mysia, probably on the road from Adramyttion to Pergamum near modern Aşağıbey (localization of [1] confirmed by [2]; plan in [2. vol. 1, 297]). Coin minting attests to the existence of P. from the 4th cent. BC (cf. [2. vol. 2, 308-325]). Thucydides did not, as Steph. Byz. (s.v. Παρπάρων/ Parpárōn) would have it, die in P. but probably in Hellanicus [1] around 400 BC (Suda s.v. Π.). At the time of Pliny the Elder (1st cent. AD), P. appears to have belonged to the conventus of Pergamum (HN 5,122,3; 5,126,9). The coins attest to a…

Marpessus

(108 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μάρπεσσος/ Márpessos; Marmessos, Marmi(y)ssos). Town in the Troad, regarded as the home of the Hellespontine Sibyl (Paus. 10,12,3). Its location is derived from Paus. ibid. (‘240 stadia from Alexandria [2] Troas ’) and Lactant. Div. inst. 1,6 ( circa oppidum Gergithum). After Leaf [1. 106] calculated this to be in the area of Ballı Dağı, a definite location seems now to have been established by Cook [2. 281-283] at Dam Kale near Zerdalli, approx. 8 km north of Gergis. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923 2 J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1…

Rhyndacus

(106 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥύνδακος/ Rhýndakos). River in the Troad, not regarded as a single body today (Koca Çay, Kocasu Çayı, Orhaneli Çayı). It rises in Mysia Abbaïtis and flows through Phrygia (Phryges). It formed the frontier between Mysia and Bithynia, forms lacus Apolloniatis (Uluabat Gölü), exiting the lake at the northwest and flowing into the Propontis south of the island of Besbikos (modern Imralı Adası). During the Roman Period, it formed the boundary between the provinces of Asia [2] and Bithynia. In 73 BC, Licinius [I 26] Lucullu…

Satnioeis

(96 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σατνιόεις; Satnióeis). River in Troas (Hom. Il. 6,34; 14,445; 21,87), modern Tuzla Çayı, rises on the southwestern slopes of the Ida [2], near Gargara. It was on the S. that Homer's city of Pedasus [3] is supposed to have been (cf. Str. 13,1,50). At Assus the S. is only about 2 km from the sea; it then proceeds west and reaches the sea between Hamaxitus and Larisa [5] near Gülpınar. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. S, RE 2 A 1, 79 f.  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 250-253  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 245 f.

Scepsis

(119 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League (Σκῆψις/ Skêpsis, Σκᾶψις/ Skâpsis). Aeolian settlement in the Troad, modern Kurşunlu Tepe, on the upper Scamander, according to Str.  13,1,52 founded by Hector's son Scamandrius. In the 5th cent. BC S. was probably colonised by Milesian settlers. By Antigonus [1] it was incorporated into Alexandria [2] Troas, and by Lysimachus [2] made independent again (Str. 13,1,52). Allegedly the libraries of Theophrastus and Aristoteles…

Macestus, Mecestus

(140 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μέγιστος; Mégistos). Aside from the Rhyndacus and the Tarsius, the largest river in northern Mysia (cf. Str. 12,8,11; Plin. HN 5,142; Pol. 5,77,8), modern Simav Çayı that like the Tarsius flows into the Rhyndacus north of Miletupolis. Attalus [4] I was encamped on the M., north of the Pelecas Mountains with the Galatian Aegosages on his campaign against Achaeus [5], when he experienced a lunar eclipse on 1 January 218 BC. A relief of Apollo Mekastenos is probably also reminiscent of this river [1]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. W. Hasluck, Unpublished …

Troad

(719 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Τρῳάς/ Trō(i)ás, gen. -ádos, fem. adj. 'Trojan', sc. 'land'), territory in the northwest of Asia Minor. It covered the region of the present-day Biga Peninsula (Biga Yarımadası). Its boundaries and nomenclature fluctuated in antiquity. The confused ancient testimonies on its frontiers are well summarized in [1. 526-531]. In general, reliance is mostly placed on Strabo (12,4,6; 13,1,1-4), who essentially refers to Homer (Homerus [1]): the T. was bounded to the north, west and south by …

Rhodius

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥόδιος/ Rhódios). River in the Troad (Hom. Il. 12,20), modern Koca Çay. It rises in the Ida [2] mountains and flows into the Hellespont between Abydus and Dardanus (Str. 13,1,28). The towns of Gordus and Cleandrea were in its source region (Str. 13,1,44). Coins from Dardanus that date to the Roman period show the river god R. (SNG Danish Nat. Mus., Troas, no. 310). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. R. (2), RE 1 A, 956  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 207 f.  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 55.

Rhoeteum

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ῥοίτειον; Rhoíteion). Coastal town in Troas in the foothills of the same name, probably founded by Astypalaea (Str. 13,1,42), about 4 km to the southwest of Ophryneum, 9 km south of Kepez on the Baba Kalesi [1. 79 f., 87-89]. In 480 BC Xerxes marched past R. (Hdt. 7,43). In 425/4 BC R. paid eight talents in the Delian League (ATL 1,393; 544; 2,82; 4,108). Its favourably sited harbour seems to have made R. rich (Thuc. 4,52; 8,101; Dio…

Assos

(680 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Colonization | Persian Wars | Delian League | Education / Culture (Ἄσσος; Ássos). The location of what was to become A. -- a trachyte rock (up to 234 m in height) on the south-western coast of the Troad, modern Behramkale -- had been inhabited from the Bronze Age onwards. For that reason, attempts have been made to localize the Homeric  Pedasus within the settlement area of the Leleges [3. 245f.]. The Aeolian colony of A. was a Methymnian foundatio…

Abarnias

(93 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Abarnis, Abarnos, Ἀβαρνίας; Abarnías). Abarnias is the name given by ancient authors to the coastline 5 km north-east of  Lampsacus (Apoll. Rhod. 1,932; Orph. A. 489) [1. 93 f.] which belonged to the territory of this polis. During the battle of  Aegospotami (405 BC), the main sails of the Spartan fleet were stored there (Xen. Hell. 2,1,29). Steph. Byz. (s.v. A.) is the only source also to refer to a polis of the same name. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923. G. Hirschfeld, s. v. Abarnis, RE 1, 17.

Sigeum

(270 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Σίγειον/ Sígeion, Latin Sigeum). Promontory (Σιγειὰς ἄκρα/ Sigeiàs ákra, Str. 13,1,31; 46) and city at its southern end (for the geography see [3. 173 ff.]) in the Troad; its location to the north of modern Yenişehir near Kumkale [2. 180-185] appears to be verified by inscriptions and coins. S. was founded by Mytilene and shared with Rhoeteum the territory of Ilium (Troy) until the latter was refounded (Str. 13,1,42). Conflicts between Athe…
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