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Macestus, Mecestus

(140 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μέγιστος; Mégistos). Aside from the Rhyndacus and the Tarsius, the largest river in northern Mysia (cf. Str. 12,8,11; Plin. HN 5,142; Pol. 5,77,8), modern Simav Çayı that like the Tarsius flows into the Rhyndacus north of Miletupolis. Attalus [4] I was encamped on the M., north of the Pelecas Mountains with the Galatian Aegosages on his campaign against Achaeus [5], when he experienced a lunar eclipse on 1 January 218 BC. A relief of Apollo Mekastenos is probably also reminiscent of this river [1]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. W. Hasluck, Unpublished Inscriptions from the Cyzicus Neighbourhood, in: JHS 24, 1904, 20, no. 1. A. Philippson, Reisen und Forschungen im westlichen Kleinasien 3 (Petermanns Geogr. Mitt. Ergh. 177), 1913, 3 L. Robert, Études Anatoliennes, 1937, 187 (repr. 1970) W. Ruge, s.v. M., RE 14, 773.

Troad

(719 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Τρῳάς/ Trō(i)ás, gen. -ádos, fem. adj. 'Trojan', sc. 'land'), territory in the northwest of Asia Minor. It covered the region of the present-day Biga Peninsula (Biga Yarımadası). Its boundaries and nomenclature fluctuated in antiquity. The confused ancient testimonies on its frontiers are well summarized in [1. 526-531]. In general, reliance is mostly placed on Strabo (12,4,6; 13,1,1-4), who essentially refers to Homer (Homerus [1]): the T. was bounded to the north, west and south by the sea, and to…

Rhodius

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥόδιος/ Rhódios). River in the Troad (Hom. Il. 12,20), modern Koca Çay. It rises in the Ida [2] mountains and flows into the Hellespont between Abydus and Dardanus (Str. 13,1,28). The towns of Gordus and Cleandrea were in its source region (Str. 13,1,44). Coins from Dardanus that date to the Roman period show the river god R. (SNG Danish Nat. Mus., Troas, no. 310). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. R. (2), RE 1 A, 956  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 207 f.  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 55.

Rhoeteum

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ῥοίτειον; Rhoíteion). Coastal town in Troas in the foothills of the same name, probably founded by Astypalaea (Str. 13,1,42), about 4 km to the southwest of Ophryneum, 9 km south of Kepez on the Baba Kalesi [1. 79 f., 87-89]. In 480 BC Xerxes marched past R. (Hdt. 7,43). In 425/4 BC R. paid eight talents in the Delian League (ATL 1,393; 544; 2,82; 4,108). Its favourably sited harbour seems to have made R. rich (Thuc. 4,52; 8,101; Diod. Sic. 17,7,10), but its prosperity waned in the Hellenistic Period. In the Syrian War (191-188 BC) the Romans landed here in 190 BC, because entry to the harbour of Abydus was barred to them (App. Syr. 10,23). There is no more mention of R. in the Ephesus toll law [2]. Near R. were the monument and temple of Ajax [1], whose statue Antonius [I 9] carried off to Egypt and Caesar had brought back (…

Assos

(680 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Colonization | Persian Wars | Delian League | Education / Culture (Ἄσσος; Ássos

Abarnias

(93 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Abarnis, Abarnos, Ἀβαρνίας; Abarnías). Abarnias is the name given by ancient authors to the coastline 5 km north-east of  Lampsacus (Apoll. Rhod. 1,932; Orph. A. 489) [1. 93 f.] which belonged to the territory of this polis. During the battle of  Aegospotami (405 BC), the main sails of the Spartan fleet were stored there (Xen. Hell. 2,1,29). Steph. Byz. (s.v. A.) is the only source also to refer to a polis of the same name. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923. G. Hirschfeld, s. v. Abarnis, RE 1, 17.

Sigeum

(270 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Σίγειον/ Sígeion, Latin Sigeum). Promontory (Σιγειὰς ἄκρα/ Sigeiàs ákra, Str. 13,1,31; 46) and city at its southern end (for the geography see [3. 173 ff.]) in the Troad; its location to the north of modern Yenişehir near Kumkale [2. 180-185] appears to be verified by inscriptions and coins. S. was founded by Mytilene and shared with Rhoeteum the territory of Ilium (Troy) until the latter was refounded (Str. 13,1,42). Conflicts between Athe…

Adramyttium

(482 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | Pergamum | Persian Wars (Ἀδραμύττιον; Adramýttion or Ἀτραμύττιον; Atramýttion). The polis of A. was discovered and identified in the 19th cent. to the west of the village of Kemer on Cape Karatas (modern Ören) opposite  Lesbos. The early history is subject to contradictory evidence (regarding an earlier settlement). It is also unclear whether Thracian or Lydian initiative had led to its foundation. Steph. Byz. s. v. A. names  Adramys, a brother of the Lydian king  Croesus, as its founder [1. 185 f.].…

Colonae

(356 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Κολωναί; Kolōnaí). [German version] [1] Attic mesogeia deme belonging to the Leontis phyle Attic mesogeia deme belonging to the Leontis phyle, provided two bouleutaí, on Mount Pentelicon [1. 37217] near Hecale [2. 64f.] or near Michaleza [3. 131]. The Demotikon is Κολωνεύς and also Κολωνῆθεν.  Colonus Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. J. Bicknell, Akamantid Eitea, in: Historia 27, 1978, 369-374 2 W. E. Thompson, Notes on Attic Demes, in: Hesperia 39, 1970, 64-67 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 61f., 131. …

Myrina

(670 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μύρινα; Mýrina). [German version] [1] Amazon Amazon (Dionysius Chalcidensis FHG 4 F 2), daughter of Cretheus, wife of Thoas (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,601); eponym of the city of the same name (M. [3]) on Lemnos (Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 138c). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Apollonia

(1,493 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλωνία; Apollōnía). [German version] [1] City in southern  Illyricum This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League City in southern  Illyricum, in antiquity on the north bank of the Aous, c. 6 km from the sea, near modern Pojani (Albania). Founded by Corinthians at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC, with the participation of Corcyra (mythical oikist Gylax). Hdt. 9,93-95, Paus. 5,22,3 f. and inscriptions attest to the wealth of A. during the 5th cent. BC; …

Callicolone

(174 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Καλλικολώνη; Kallikolṓnē). Place 40 stades east of Troy, the settlement mound of Karatepe east of Sarıçalı (also Sarçalı) [3. 110f.]. There, above the river Simois, Ares allegedly called the Trojans to battle (Hom. Il. 20,51; Str. 13,1,35). According to schol. Hom. Il. 20,3, it was also the location of the contest of the three goddesses Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite (judgement of  Paris). Whereas Forchhammer only discovered few traces of habitation and some foundations [1. 26], Virc…

Neon Teichos

(247 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Νέον τεῖχος; Néon teîchos). [German version] [1] Fortified town on the northern coast of the Propontis Fortified town on the northern coast of the  Propontis, south of  Bisanthe (Ps.-Scyl. 67). It was founded by  Bisanthe or by  Samos, and from the end of the 5th cent. BC it was  in the hands of the Odrysae. NT was said  to have belonged  to Alcibiades [3] temporarily (Nep. Alcibiades 7,4). Seuthes offered  Xenophon the gift of N. together with  Bisanthe and Ganos (Xen. An. 7,5,8). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography U. Kahrstedt, Beiträge zur Geschichte der thraki…

Cadi

(137 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Κάδοι; Kádoi). A city first named by Pol. 33,12,2 near today's Gediz in the headwaters of the Hermus, where the Roman board of ten met with  Attalus [5] II in 155/4 BC. According to Ptol. 5,2,16, C. is located in the border region of Mysia, Phrygia and Lydia. The origin of the city is unknown, probably non-Greek. It is possible that C. was inhabited by Macedonian veterans since the time of Alexander the Great (Plin. HN 5,111). Since Str. 12,8,12 assigns C. to the Phrygía Epíktētos, it is likely that the region of C. came under the rule of Pergamum in 188 BC. C. s…

Ida

(439 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἴδη, Ἰδαῖον ὄρος; Ídē, Idaîon hóros). [German version] [1] Highest mountain range in Crete Highest mountain range in Crete, modern Psiloritis, with the peak Timios Stavros (2,456 m). Still heavily forested in antiquity (cf. the name I. = ‘wooded mountains’), predominantly with cypresses (Eur. Hipp. 1253; Theophr. Hist. pl. 3,2,6; 4,1,3; Plin. HN 16,142). Used early on for mining metals (FGrH 239,11; Diod. Sic. 5,64,5) and agriculture (Theophr. De ventis, fr. 5,13 Wimmer; [1]). The cave considered the birthpl…

Cebren

(263 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Κέβρην; Kébrēn). Town in the Troad, located on two hills, Çal Dağı and the Fuğla Tepesi near Akpınarköyü on the middle reaches of the Scamander. On the opposing bank of the river lay Scepsis with whom C. was in perpetual dispute. C. was the residence of one of Priam's illegitimate sons (Hom. Il. 16,738; Str. 13,1,33). It had been founded by Cyme (Ephor. FGrH 239 F 22); earliest pottery finds point to the 7th cent. BC [1. 333]. Cook,…

Cana

(94 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Κάνη, Κάναι; Kánē, Kánai). Frequently mentioned foothills (ἀκρωτήριον, Hdt. 7,42,3; Diod. Sic. 4,53,2; 13,97,4,1; Str. 10,1,5; 13,1,68; Καινὴ ἄκρα, Ptol. 5,2,6,1) with a settlement and a harbour in north-western Aeolis, at the southern end of the bay of Adramytteum, near the modern Kara Dağ. A decree from Demetrias [1] bestows honours on three citizens of C. (IG IX 2, 1105 I). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 20, 1844f. W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 335-337 Robert, Villes, 18 J. Stauber, Die Bucht von Adramytteion 1 (IK…

Thymbrius

(43 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Θύμβριος; Thýmbrios). Right-bank tributary of the Scamander, modern Kemer Suyu, after which the surrounding plain and possibly also the city of Thymbra are named. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 177-180  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 110-123.

Lecton

(105 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Λεκτόν, Λεκτός; Lektón, Lektós, Cape Lecton). Western foothills of the Trojan Ida, stretching to the Aegean sea (Hom. Il. 14,283; Hdt. 9,114; Thuc. 8,101; mainly Str. in book 13). The sources merely indicate that Cape L. or a town L. was situated near modern Babakale; no further details can be determined. Close by there was an archaeologically unverifiable altar for the Twelve (Olympian) Gods (Str. 13,1,48), which was erected by Agamemnon according to the legend. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 227 L. Bürchner, s.v. L., …

Aesepus

(98 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Αἴσηπος; Aísēpos). River in  Mysia, modern Gönen Çay, rising at Mount Cotylus in the  Ida mountains (Str. 13,1,43). It is already mentioned by Homer (Il. 2,825; 4,91; 12; 21). In its course to the north-east, it takes in the Caresus. After 500 stades, it flows into the  Propontis near the island of Halone (modern Pasalimani) (Str. 13,1,11). Even in Homer's times, the valley of the A. defined the eastern border of the  Troas (Str. 13,1,9), and was densely populated in its middle reaches (Str. 13,1,45). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the T…
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