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(822 words)

Author(s): Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle
[English Version] . Die Entstehung der Synagoge als Institution und Bauwerk war das Ergebnis eines langen Transformationsprozesses innerhalb des Judentums. Nach der Zerstörung des Jerusalemer Tempels (: II., 4.) 70 n.Chr. wurde das Tempelopfer durch das auf das Gebet (: XI.,1.) gegründete rel. Leben ersetzt. Dieses gemeinschaftliche Gemeindegebet benötigte einen entsprechenden Raum, in dem sich die Gemeinde für den Zeitraum des nun auf die Toralesung konzentrierten Gottesdienstes (: II.,3.) versam…


(344 words)

Author(s): Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle
[German Version] The seven-branched candelabrum (Candlestick/Candelabrum: I) including base, shaft, and branches with cups and lamps belonged to the furnishings of the tabernacle and was made of pure gold ¶ (Exod 25:31–40; 37:17–24); it was set up in the temple (II, 4.b) of Solomon in Jerusalem, along with ten copper candlesticks (1 Kgs 7:49), and in addition to the one set up by Moses ( Pr.Man. 98b). The menorah was carried off along with the rest of the tabernacle furnishings when the Babylonians (Chaldea/Chaldeans) destroyed the temple in 587 bce (Jer 52:19). Following the recons…

Synagogue Architecture

(1,096 words)

Author(s): Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle
[German Version] The emergence of the synagogue as an institution and structure was the result of a long process of transformation within Judaism. After the destruction of the Jerusalem temple (II, 4) in 70 ce, temple sacrifice was replaced by a religious life grounded in prayer (XI, 1). This communal prayer required a suitable space where the community could assemble during worship (II, 3), which now centered on a reading from the Torah. This new understanding of worship represented a critical turning point for Judaism: the synagogue liturgy (VII) became the only authorized religious observanc…


(2,213 words)

Author(s): Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle
[German Version] I. Jewish Catacombs – II. Christian Catacombs I. Jewish Catacombs 1. In the Second Temple period, Jerusalem was surrounded by an important necropolis composed of both monumental tombs with decorated facades and simple graves; most of them lay to the east, south and north of the city, in the Qidron valley, between the Temple Mount and the Mount of Olives. The earliest is the tomb of the “Bene Chesir,” attributed to the 1st century bce. A Hebrew inscription on the architrave identifies the memorial as “tomb and nefesh” (literally, “soul,” indicating dedication to …


(1,078 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Arnulf, Arwed
[English Version] I. Mythologisch Die Erzählungen von O. spiegeln Entstehung und Ablehnung einer rel. Bewegung der griech. Archaik: Ein Prinz aus Thrakien in Nordgriechenland begeistert als Künstler; die psychagogische und entzückende Macht der Musik (Ekstase) wird erzählt in der Unterweltsfahrt: Die Gattin des O., Eurydike, stirbt. Um sie wiederzugewinnen, steigt O. in den Hades. Es gelingt ihm, durch die Musik Steine zu erweichen und die unerbittlichen Totengötter umzustimmen, daß sie seine verst…


(1,142 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Arnulf, Arwed
[German Version] I. Mythology – II. Art I. Mythology The stories of Orpheus reflect the emergence and rejection of a religious movement in Archaic Greece: a prince from Thrace in northern Greece enchants everyone with his artistry; the psychagogic and ecstatic power of music (Ecstasy) is recalled in a journey to the netherworld. Eurydice, the wife of Orpheus, dies; to win her back, he descends into Hades. Through his music, he charms even the rocks and persuades the implacable gods of the dead to release…


(2,793 words)

Author(s): Leriche, Pierre | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Rutgers, Leonard V.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Jewish Community – III. Christian Community I. History of Religions The site of ruins (discovered in 1921) situated in southeastern Syria on the right bank of the upper Euphrates near modern As-Salihiya was founded (“Europos”) before 280 bce by Seleukos I Nicator (Seleucids). From 113 bce until its conquest by the Romans in 165 ce, the city was under Parthian dominion (“Dura” = fortification). After its destruction by the Sassanides in 256 and as a result of the alteration in the course of the Euphrates, Dura-Europos became desolate. ¶ The e…


(6,550 words)

Author(s): Uehlinger, Christoph | Koch, Güntram | Arnulf, Arwed | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Finster, Barbara | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Archaeology – III. Iconography and the Bible – IV. Christian Iconography – V. Jewish Iconography – VI. Islamic Iconography – VII. Buddhist Iconography – VIII. Hindu Iconography I. Religious Studies Iconography (Gk εἰκονογραϕία/ eikonographía) originally meant the description of images (Arist. Poet. XV; Strabo XV 1.19), but nowadays is used to refer to the methodical study of images. Where scholars distinguish between iconography, iconology , and iconics (Ger. Ikonik), iconography denotes the description of the object, …


(7,938 words)

Author(s): Berner, Ulrich | Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard | Recki, Birgit | Schlenke, Dorothee | Biehl, Peter | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Eine religionswiss. relevante Verwendung des griech. Wortes συ´μβολοn̆/sýmbolon findet sich schon früh in der eur. Religionsgesch., z.B. bei Dion von Prusa (1./2.Jh. n.Chr.) in seiner Rede über die Zeus-Statue des Pheidias in Olympia (Oratio 12,59). Der griech. Symbolbegriff verweist in diesem Zusammenhang auf die Problematik der Götterbilder, die darin besteht, daß das, was eigentlich der menschlichen Anschauung entzogen ist, dem Menschen anschaulich vergegenwärtigt werden soll. In der Religionswiss., v.a. in der R…

Symbols/Symbol Theory

(9,049 words)

Author(s): Berner, Ulrich | Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard | Recki, Birgit | Schlenke, Dorothee | Biehl, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Use of the Greek word σύμβολον/ sýmbolon in a sense relevant to religious studies is attested quite early in the history of European religions; Dio of Prusa (1st/2nd cent. ce), for example, used it in his speech on Phidias’s statue of Zeus in Olympia ( Oratio 12.59). In this context, the Greek term reflects the problem posed by images of the gods: what is intrinsically inaccessible to human vision (Vision/Intuition) is somehow to be represented visually. In religious studies, especially in the phenomenology of religion, the concept of sy…

Art and Religion

(16,087 words)

Author(s): Krech, Volkhard | Lentes, Thomas | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Imorde, Joseph | Ganz, David | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies, Systematics – II. Academic Research Disciplines – III. History – IV. Christian Theology I. Religious Studies, Systematics 1. Methodology. In defining the relationship between art and religion from the perspective of religious studies, one cannot speak of a universal concept of art and religion on the phenomenal level. To do comparative work, however, sufficient abstract characteristics must be established as a tertium comparationis to enable a systematic examination of the relationship betwe…