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al-Muṭarrizī

(784 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Burhān al-Dīn Abu ’l-Fatḥ (Abu ’l-Muẓaffar) Nāṣir b. Abi ’l-Makārim ʿAbd al-Sayyid b. ʿAlī al-K̲h̲wārazmī al-Ḥanafī, philologist, jurist and adīb (538-610/1144-1213). He was born in K̲h̲wārazm, at al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲āniyya or Gurgānd̲j̲ [ q.v.], in Rad̲j̲ab 538/January-February 1144. He began his studies with his father and continued them under the ak̲h̲tab K̲h̲ w ārazm Abu ’l-Muʾayyad al-Muwaffaḳ b. Aḥmad al-Makkī, a pupil of al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī [ q.v.], and others. Later, well-known as an authority in philology, he was called k̲h̲alifat al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī

Kitāb

(1,810 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
(a., pl. kutub ) “book”. The beginnings of the Arabic book go back to the early Islamic period. According to traditions, sheets ( ṣuḥuf ) with verses of the Ḳurʾān were collected and put between wooden covers ( lawḥayn , daffatayn ,) kept thus and called by the Ethiopian word for “book”, muṣḥaf / maṣḥaf [ q.v.]. Following Christian and Jewish patterns, this form of a codex was generally maintained for the Holy Book since the authoritative redaction done under ʿUt̲h̲mān; by that means, the Ḳurʾān was distinguished, by its material form, from profane writings in rolls made of papyrus [see ḳirṭās …

al-Ḳālī

(1,062 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū ʿAlī Ismāʿīl b. al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAvd̲h̲ūn b. Hārūn b. ʿĪsā b. Muḥammad b. Sulaymān / Salmān ( mawlā of ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān or of his son Muḥammad) al-Bag̲h̲dādī , great Arab philologist (288/901-356/967). The genealogy and following data are vouched for by his autobiography, which was preserved by his pupil, al-Zubaydī (p. 204 f.). He was born in the year 28(8)/901 in Manāzd̲j̲ird [ q.v.], to the north of Lake Van. In 303/915 he set out for Bag̲h̲dād; after a longer stay in Mosul, he arrived there in 305/917, along with people from the frontier town of Ḳālīḳalā (Erzerum), whose nisba

al-Māzinī

(808 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān Bakr b. Muḥammad . Arab philologist and Ḳurʾān reader from al-Baṣra. Information about his life and works is scarce and partly contradictory. Already discutable is the name of his grandfather and his supposed lineal descent from the Banū Māzin [ q.v.]; the tradition that he was only a mawlā of the Banū Māzin is more likely to be correct. Al-Māzinī uses materials taken from Abū Zayd al-Anṣārī, Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Ak̲h̲fas̲h̲ al-Awsaṭ, al-Aṣmaʿī and Abū ʿUbayda [ q.vv.]. Among his disciples, al-Mubarrad (d. 286/900 [ q.v.]) is to be mentioned in the first place. The stor…

al-K̲h̲alīl b. Aḥmad

(2,139 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
b. ʿamr b. tamīm al-farāhidī ( al-furhūdī ; see W. Caskel, Ǧamharat an-nasab , ii, 343 f.) al-azdī al-yaḥmadī al-baṣrī abū ʿabd al-raḥmān , important Arab philologist. Born in ʿUmān, he grew up in Baṣra where he died, at over seventy, in 175/791, or 170/786, or 160/776 (Zubaydī, Ṭabaḳāt , 47; Marzubānī, Muḳtabas , 56; Fihrist , 42). As a young man he adhered to the Ṣufriyya [ q.v.], but he embraced Sunnī orthodoxy under the influence of his teacher Ayyūb al-Sak̲h̲tivānī (d. 131/748,) a well-known traditionist and faḳīh (Ziriklī, Aʿlām , i, 382). His studies in Ar…

al-Mubarrad

(3,335 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Muḥammad b. Yazīd b. ʿAbd al-Akbar al-T̲h̲umālī al-Azdī (his genealogy reaches back to the D̲j̲āhiliyya; cf. Wüstenfeld, Tabellen , no. 10; Caskel, Tafeln , no. 210), celebrated philologist, was born in al-Baṣra on 10 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 210/24 March 826 (or between 2 and 5 years earlier). As tradition tells us, it was in the circles ( ḥalaḳāt ) of Abū ʿUmar al-D̲j̲armī (d. 225/839) and Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān al-Māzinī [ q.v.] that he came into close contact with the Kitāb of Sībawayh; moreover, he took part in the scholarly discussions between …

al-Maydānī

(1,327 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm al-Naysābūrī , Arab philologist, domiciled in Naysābūr in the upper part of the Maydān (square) of Ziyād b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. In the cemetery of this quarter (al-Maydān) he was buried after his death on Wednesday, 25 Ramaḍān 518/5 November 1124. In his home town, his teachers were the philologists and Ḳurʾān scholars Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Wāḥidī (d. 468/1076), Yaʿḳūb b. Aḥmad al-Kurdī (d. 470/1078), and ʿAlī al-Mud̲j̲ās̲h̲iʿī al-Farazdaḳī (d…

al-Marzubānī

(1,684 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
Abū ʿUbayd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿImrān b. Mūsā b. Saʿīd b. ʿUbayd Allāh al-K̲h̲urāsānī al-Bag̲h̲dādī al-Kātib , was one of the most versatile and prolific of Arab scholars in the vast field of adab during the 4th/10th century. 1. Life. His wealthy and influential family resided in K̲h̲urāsān, and his father was deputy to the ṣāḥib K̲h̲urāsān at the caliphal court in Bag̲h̲dād, where al-Marzubānī was born in D̲j̲umādā II 297/February-March 910 or in the year before. Here he devoted himself to the study of ḥadīt̲h̲ under the guidance of well-known traditionists …

al-Yazīdī

(1,436 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū Muḥammad Yaḥyā b. al-Mubārak b. al-Mug̲h̲īra al-ʿAdawī al-Baṣrī al-Bag̲h̲dādī, with the laḳab or s̲h̲uhra of al-Yazīdī (so named after Yazīd b. Manṣūr al-Ḥimyarī, d. 165/781, maternal uncle of the caliph al-Mahdī), Ḳurʾān teacher, grammarian, lexicographer, poet and man of letters, d. 202/817-18. 1. Al-Yazīdī, the father. Born around 128/745-6 in Baṣra (?) as a client of the Banū ʿAdī b. ʿAbd Manāt, he frequented the local philologists, particularly Abū ʿAmr b. al-ʿAlāʾ, Yūnus b. Ḥabīb and al-K̲h̲alīl b. Aḥmad [ q.vv.]. He became the main transmitter of the seven canoni…

al-Samʿānī

(1,614 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū Saʿd (incorrectly Saʿīd) ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Abī Bakr Muḥammad b. Abi ’l-Muẓaffar (al-)Manṣūr al-Tamīmī al-Marwazī al-S̲h̲afiʿī, Tād̲j̲ al-Islām (al-Dīn) Ḳiwām al-Dīn, also known as Ibn al-Samʿānī (Samʿān/Simʿān, in the long, incomplete genealogy, being a branch of the tribe of Tamīm), important Arab biographer. Born in Marw on Monday, 21 S̲h̲aʿbān 506/10 February 1113, he died there on Monday, 1 Rabīʿ I 562/26 December 1166. He was born into a learned family (for his father [466-510/1074-1116] see Ziriklī, vii, 112, and for his grandfather [426-89/1036-96] ibid., vii, 303-4).…

al-Kisāʾī

(1,610 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ḥamza b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Bahman b. Fayrūz , mawlā of the Banū Asad, well-known Arab philologist and Ḳurʾān-reader ( ca. 119-89/737-805). Descendant of an Iranian family from the Sawād, he was born in Bāḥams̲h̲ā, Dud̲j̲ayl, north of Bag̲h̲dād (Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am , i, 458 s.v.; M. Streck, Die alte Landschaft Babylonien , Leiden 1901, ii, 226) and when still a boy, came to al-Kūfa (Zubaydī, Ṭabaḳāt , 138; Ibn al-D̲j̲azarī, G̲h̲āya , i, 535). It is related that he had difficulties with the ʿarabiyya and therefore sought to attach himself to the grammarian Muʿād̲h̲ al-Harrāʾ ( Taʾ…

al-Tibrīzī

(1,286 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. [Muḥammad b. Mūsā b. (Yāḳūt, Udabāʾ , vii, 286)] Bisṭām al-S̲h̲aybānī, imām ahl al-adab (Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am , i, 823; al-k̲h̲aṭīb is incorrect, see Ḳifṭī, Inbāh , iv, 22), celebrated Arab philologist (421-502/1030-1109). Born a son of the k̲h̲aṭīb of Tabrīz [ q.v.], the talented young man embarked on the ṭalab al-ʿilm at an early age. He did not give it up until his appointment at the madrasa [ q.v.] al-Niẓāmiyya (inaugurated 459/1067) in Bag̲h̲dād as professor of the adab sciences, above all naḥw , lug̲h̲a , ʿarūḍ , and ḳawāfī

al-Sad̲j̲āwandī

(416 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh (Abu ’l-Faḍl, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar) Muḥammad (Aḥmad) b. Abī Yazīd Ṭayfūr al-Sad̲j̲āwandī al-G̲h̲aznawī al-Muḳriʾ al-Mufassir al-Naḥwī al-Lug̲h̲awī, an innovative Ḳurʾān reader and philologist, died 560/1165 (?) He lived and worked in Sad̲j̲/g/kāwand, a small ¶ village half-way to the east of the route from Kābul to G̲h̲aznī in the vicinity of Sayyidābād, dominated by a high-lying citadel, now in ruins, called Tak̲h̲t-i or S̲h̲ār-i (S̲h̲ahr-i) Ḏj̲ams̲h̲īd. On the foot of this mount is placed the mausoleum of Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Aḥmad (Muḥammad). Here, even today, the S̲h̲ayk…

Ḳirṭās

(644 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
stands for 1. papyrus, papyrus roll, 2. parchment, and 3. later also rag paper; from the Arabic texts, it is not always clear which material is meant. The word ḳirṭās , ḳarṭās , ḳurṭās , or ḳirṭas , kartas , has been adopted from the Greek word χάρτη through the Aramaic; from the Arabic, it has been adopted by the Spanish as alcartaz meaning “bag”, and by the Portugese as cartaz meaning “paper, permit; placard”. In the Ḳurʾān, it is mentioned in the singular, ḳirṭās (Sūra VI, 7), and in the plural, ḳarāṭīs , meaning “[written] papyri” (Sūra VI, 91). Sometimes a genuine Arabic word is used: warak al-ḳ…

al-Layt̲h̲ b. al-Muẓaffar

(451 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Arab philologist and jurisprudent, grandson of the Umayyad governor of K̲h̲urāsān Naṣr b. Sayyār al-Kinānī al-Layt̲h̲ī (d. 131/748, 85 years old [ q.v.]). Sometimes he is identified as the son of the latter or even as the son of an alleged third son of his grandfather, Rāfiʿ, who might be confused with the well-known Rāfiʿ b. Layt̲h̲ b. Naṣr b. Sayyār [see hārūn al-ras̲h̲īd ]. The biographical information about al-Layt̲h̲ (or Layt̲h̲) is meagre. He studied grammar and lexicography under the versatile scholar and ḳāḍī , of Kūfa, Ḳāsim b. Maʿn (d. 175/791?),…

al-S̲h̲ayzarī

(609 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Amīn al-Dīn Abu ’l-G̲h̲an̄aʾim Muslim b. Abi ’l-T̲h̲anāʾ Maḥmūd b. Sanad al-Dawla ¶ D̲j̲amāl al-Mulk Abi ’l-Faḍāʾil Niʿma b. Sanad al-Dawla Abi ’l-ʿAṭāʾ Arslān (Raslān) b. Yaḥyā, adīb , poet and astronomer. His grandfather and great-grandfather belonged to the mamālīk , in the rank of an amīr, of Usāma b. Munḳid̲h̲ (d. 584/1188 [see munḳid̲h̲ ], lord ( ṣāḥib ) of S̲h̲ayzar [ q.v.] on the Orontes. His father (d. after 565/1169) was an adīb and poet at the court of Usāma, but acquired also a reputation as grammarian ( naḥwī ) in the Great Mosque at Damascus (ʿImād al-Dīn, K̲h̲arīda

al-Tibrīzī

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā b. ʿalī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. [Muḥammad b. Mūsā b. (Yākūt, Udabāʾ, VII, 286)] Bisṭām al-S̲h̲aybānī, imām ahl al-adab (Yāḳūt Muʿd̲j̲am, I, 823; al-k̲h̲aṭīb est erronné, voir Ḳifṭī, Inbāh, IV, 22), philologue arabe célèbre (421-502/1030-1109). Fils du k̲h̲aṭīb de Tabrīz [ q.v.], ce jeune homme doué s’embarqua très jeune dans le ṭalab al-ʿilm. Il continua jusqu’à sa nomination, à la madrasa [ q.v.] al-Niẓāmiyya (inaugurée en 459/1067) de Bag̲h̲dād. comme professeur des sciences de l’ adab, surtout de naḥw, lug̲h̲a, ʿarūḍ et ḳawāfī. Il en devint aussi le bi…

al-K̲h̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dadī

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. T̲h̲ābit b. Aḥmad b. Mahdī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, connu plutôt sous l’appellatif d’al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, naquit le 24 d̲j̲umādā II 392/10 mai 1002 ( Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād, XI, 266) à Hanīḳiyā, village au voisinage de Nahr al-Malik, en aval de Bag̲h̲dād (al-Ṣafadī, Wāfī, VII, 191; voir M. Streck, Die alte Landschaft Babylonien, Leyde 1900, I, 27) mais, d’après Ibn al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār (voir Y. al-ʿIs̲h̲s̲h̲, Al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, Damas 1364/1945, 17), il serait né à G̲h̲uzayya, hameau situé à mi-chemin entre Kūfa et La Mekke. Fils d’un prédicateur ( k̲h̲aṭīb [ q.v.]…

al-Maydānī

(1,292 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm al-Naysābūrī, philologue arabe qui tire sa nisba courante du Maydān (place) Ziyād b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān de Naysābūr, dans la partie supérieure duquel il demeurait. Il mourut le mercredi 25 ramaḍān 518/5 novembre 1124 et fut inhumé au cimetière de ce quartier d’al-Maydān. Il eut pour maîtres dans sa ville natale ies philologues et spécialistes du Ḳurʾān Abū l-Ḥasan al-Wāḥidī (m. 468/1076), Ya ʿḳūb b. Aḥmad al-Kurdī (m. 470/1078) et ʿAlī al-Mud̲j̲ās̲h̲iʿī al-Farazdaḳ…

al-Māzinī

(782 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān Bakr b. Muḥammad, philologue et «lecteur» du Ḳurʾān d’al-Baṣra. Les données concernant sa vie et son œuvre sont rares et en partie contradictoires; le nom de son grand-père et son appartenance supposée aux Banū Māzin [ q.v.] (mais lesquels?) sont déjà discutables; la tradition selon laquelle il n’était qu’un mawlā de cette tribu est plus vraisemblable. Al-Māzinī emprunte ses matériaux à Abū Zayd al-Anṣārī, Abū l-Ḥasan al-Ak̲h̲fas̲h̲ al-Awsat, al-Aṣmaʿī et Abū ʿUbayda [ q.vv.]. Parmi ses disciples, al-Mubarrad (m. 286/900 [ q.v.]) doit être cité en premier lieu. …
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