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al-Mudawwar

(82 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
(a.) “that which is round”, has given, under the form almodovar , the name to a small river of the province of Cadiz which flows from the south-east into the Laguna de la Janda, and also to several places in Spain and Portugal: Almodovar del Rio, below Cordova; Almodovar del Campo (or de Calatrava), to the south-west of Ciudad Real; Almodovar del Pinar, in the province of Cunenca; and Almodovar to the west of Mértola in southern Portugal. (C.F. Seybold)

Ibn Faraḥ al-Is̲h̲bīlī

(536 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
, whose full name was S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Faraḥ b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Is̲h̲bīlī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , born in 625/1228 at Seville (Is̲h̲bīliya [ q.v.]), was taken prisoner in 646/1248 by the Franks (al-Ifrand̲j̲), i.e., the Spaniards under Ferdinand III the Saint, of Castile (1217-52), at the conquest of Seville, but escaped and afterwards went, between 650 and 660/1252-62, to Egypt; after hearing the most celebrated teachers of Cairo, he studied under those of Damascus, where he settled and gave lectures …

ʿĀmirids

(152 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
, the descendants (and clients of al-Manṣūr b. Abī ʿAmir [ q.v.], in the first place his sons ʿAbd al-Malik and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān [ qq.v.]. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Manṣūr, a son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, founded the dynasty of the ʿĀmirids in Valencia, where he ruled 412-53/1021-61. He was succeeded by his son ʿAbd al-Malik al-Muẓaffar [ q.v.], 453-7/1061-5. After a ten years’ interval under al-Maʾmūn of Toledo, ʿAbd al-Malik’s brother, Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, ¶ ruled in Valencia 468-78/1075-85. In this last year the city was wrested from Abū Bakr’s son, the ḳāḍī

Wādī Yāna or Āna

(196 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
, or Nahr Yāna/Āna , the classical Anas, Span. Guadiana, Port. Odiana, a great river of the south-central and southwestern parts of the Iberian peninsula. It rises in the southeastern part of the central Meseta, in the Serranía de Cuenca [see Ḳūnka ], as the Záncara and Gigüela rivers, and flows westwards and then southwards to the Adantic, with a course of 578 km/360 miles. Its last part, below Pomarâo, forms part of the modern boundary between Spain and Portugal; only this section, and a little further upstream t…

Guadix

(476 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, the capital of a district in the Spanish province of Granada on the northern slopes of the Sierra Nevada ( Ḏj̲ebel S̲h̲ulair = Solorius Mons, Ḏj̲ebel al-T̲h̲ald̲j̲ = “snowmountain” like Hermon), the ancient Iberian Ācci (Colonia Julia Gemella, which was however 7 miles N. W. [Baedeker wrongly S. E.] of the modern Guadix and is distinguished as Guadix al Viejo), one of the oldest bishoprics in Spain ( Sedes Accitana), with 13,000 inhabitants, on the left bank of the stream of the same name which rises to the south (Rio de Guadix), with a Moorish castle (Alcazaba), in Arabic called Wādiās̲h̲, m…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(136 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. al-Manṣūr. Two ʿĀmirides bore this name together with the surname of al-Muẓaffar: 1. ʿAbd al-Malik, the son of the famous Almanzor, had already in his father’s lifetime the title of Ḥād̲j̲ib (since 991), and after the latter’s death in 392 (1002) became his successor. His short reign (till 399 = 1008). was a happy one for his people. 2. ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Manṣūr b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, grandson of Almanzor, reigned after his father in Valencia (453—457 = 1061— 1065). He was hard pressed by Ferdinand I, king of Castile and Leon, and was finally taken…

Albarracin

(337 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
is a town on the upper Turia (Guadalaviar) in the present province of Teruel, the southern extremity of Aragon. The earliest reference to it is found in Ibn ʿAd̲h̲ārī, who mentions it only incidentally under the year 346 (957), in an account of a journey made by one of the even then almost independent princes of the Berber family of the Banū Razīn, from al-Sahla (the fertile valley of the upper Turia) to Cordova, at which place he was to take the oath of allegiance to ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III. Gayang…

Guad

(364 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
... Guadi... in a large number of Spanish river-names like Guadalquivír [q. v.], Guadiana [q. v.] from the Arabic wādī = river, valley, particularly a river which dries up in summer, which is the case with the majority, especially the smaller of rivers in Spain, cf. also rambla from the Arabic ramla, a dry sandy bed, which becomes used as a road, cf. La Rambla de Cataluña, the Corso of Barcelona = the Italian fiumara (secca); wādī in the west is usually wād, wēd (French oued), in Granada guīd (Pedro de Alcalá, like bīb for bāb etc.) e. g. Guadalaviar (also contracted to Gualaviar) = Wād al-abyaḍ, wh…

Balearic Islands

(736 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, Greek ΒαλιαρεĩΣ, Latin Baliares, which form has more authority than Baleares, usually but falsely derived from βάλλειν “to throw”, because the ancient inhabitants were good slingers and as such served in the Roman and Carthaginian armies, earlier called Gymnesiae Insulae after the almost naked horsemen, a group of islands in the western Mediterranean. The name includes in the narrower sense, ¶ the two principal islands, lying to the north-east: Mallorca (Insula Major, since the time of Procopius Majorica, Majorca) and Minorca (Insula Minor, Minorica) wi…

Alcantara

(161 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(from Arabic al-ḳanṭara, probably a Greek loanword = χέντρον, centrum), Spanish = “bridge” (mostly with stone arches), also “aqueduct”. The town of Alcántara (Arabic Ḳanṭarat al-Saif) on the Tagus, close to the Portuguese frontier, owes its fame to the order of knighthood, which was founded in 1156 for the war against the Moors and from 1213 had its seat in this town, which in 1166 had been captured by Ferdinand of Leon. The order has since been called after it. — The name of Alcántara is also giv…

Boabdil

(245 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
= Aboabdíllāh = Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad XI, the last king of Granada (887—897 = 1482—1492), son of ʿAlī Abu ’l-Ḥasan (== Mulai Hasen = Mulahacen: 866—887 = 1461—1482), was called El Rey Chico (“The Little King”) by the Spaniards and by the people of Granada el-Zogoybi (“the Poor Devil” cf. Dozy, Supplément s. v.: Zog̲h̲bī) while his uncle the Pretender Muḥammad XII b. Saʿd (890—892 = 1485—1487) was called al-Zagal = al-Zag̲h̲all (“the Valiant”; cf. Dozy, ibid.). Boabdil dethroned his father in 887 (1482) but the latter regained it from 888— 890 (1483—1485). M. J. Müller ( Die letzten Zeiten …

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(533 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, the name of five Spanish Umaiyads: 1. ʿAbd al-raḥmān I B. Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām escaped from the slaughter which the ʿAbbāsides in 750 perpetrated on his family, and after long wanderings in North Africa came to Spain, where in 756 he founded the independent Emirate (subsequently also Sultanate) of the Umaiyads at Cordova. By his statesmanlike cunning and restless energy, which with all his determination and strength of character yet for the most part never degenerated into the often so useless cruelty and b…

Almeria

(202 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, the capital (situated close to the site of the old Urci) of the most eastern province ¶ of old Andalusia and the former kingdom of Granada, — in Arabic al-Merīya or Merīyat Bed̲j̲āna, i. e. “the watch-tower of Bed̲j̲āna” (= Pechina; the old capital of the province, farther inland), had an important arsenal and harbour from the time of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I (756-788). After the fall of the Umaiyads it was independent under the Slav Ḵh̲airān till 1028, then under Zuhair till 1038; subsequently under ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Manṣūr of Valencia, next under the Banū Ṣumādiḥ (cf. Dozy, Recherches, 3rd ed., i.…

Guadiana

(487 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, Arab. Wādī or Nahr Yāna or Āna or Ānā (s. Yāḳūt), river Āna = Anas of the ancients, the Portuguese Odiana, the second most southerly of the four great rivers of the Iberian peninsula flowing into the Atlantic Ocean after parallel courses from N. E. to S. W., only navigable for 40 miles from its mouth, rises in the mountains of the eastern Iberian border of the central tableland (Meseta) in the Serrania de Cuenca, as, according to more recent geographers (notably Theobald Fischer), the Záncara (in the N. E.) …

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(101 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. ʿAbd Allāh al-G̲h̲āfiḳī, a governor of Spain, first temporarily in 103 (728), then from 112 to 114 (730—732). After defeating Duke Eudo of Aquitaine at Toulouse, he penetrated far into France, but was together with the greater part of his army annihilated by Charles Martel in Ramaḍān 114 (October 732) between Tours and Poitiers. The battle-field is called by the Arabs Balāṭ al-S̲h̲uhadāʾ, the Pavement of the Martyrs (pavement = paved Roman road) or briefly al-Balāṭ. (C. F. Seybold) Bibliography al-Ḍabbī (ed. Codera et Ribera), N°. 1021. Maḳḳarī, i. 146 ii. 9 Weil, Gesch. d. Chalifen, i.…

Ibn Mardanīs̲h̲

(431 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, Abū ʿAbd allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad (the latter usually omitted; correct in Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, iv. 166; the nephew of ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Saʿd, who fell in the battle of Albacete in 540=1146, cf. Zeitschrift d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Ges., lxiii. 1909, p. 352) b. Saʿd b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Mardanīs̲h̲ al-Ḏj̲ud̲h̲āmī (according to others, al-Tod̲j̲ībī) was born 518= 1124-5 at Bunus̲h̲kula = Benis̲h̲kola = Peñiscola between Tortosa and Castellón de la Plana, died on 29th Rad̲j̲ab 567 = 27th March 1172. In spite of the nisba, he was apparently of Spanish descent as his great-great-great …

ʿĀmirids

(182 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, the descendants (and successors; also clients and freedmen) of the great regent of the last Umaiyads in Spain, al-Manṣūrb. Abī ʿAmīr (= Almanzor, q. v; died in 392 = 1002) of the Yemenite family of ʿAbd al-Malik al-Maʿāfirī, who had come to Spain with Ṭāriḳ; firstly Almanzor’s sons ʿAbd al-Malik and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (Sanchol) b. al-Manṣūr [q. v.]. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Manṣūr [q. v.], the son of the last mentioned was the founder of the dynasty of the ʿĀmirids in Valencia, where he ruled, 412—453(102…

Denia

(711 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
is the chief town in the northeastern district of the Spanish province of Alicante, the most southerly of the three modern provinces (Castellón de la Plana, Valencia, Alicante) which make up the ancient kingdom of Valencia, with 14,000 inhabitants, situated almost at the southeast end of the Gulf of Valencia (Sinus Sucronensis) north of Mongo (2196 feet high), in Arabic Ḏj̲ebel Ḳāʿūn = Mon(t)gó, was on account of its good harbour, northwest of the ancient Promontorium Artemisium, Ferrarium or T…

Alcolea

(95 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, from Arabic al-ḳulaiʿa (“small fortress, castillejo”), the diminutive of al-ḳalʿa [cp. alcala], is the name of various places in Spain (f. i. at the south-eastern foot of the Sierra Nevada), in most cases with a specifying addition: Alcoléa de Tajo, de Cinca, del Rio, de Calatrava etc. — Alcoléa is also the name of the massive bridge and the old locality 7½ miles above Cordova on the Guadalquivir, which played a part in 1236, 1808 and 28 September 1868 (victory of the insurgents over the troops of Isabella II). (C. F. Seybold)

Albufera

(51 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(Portuguese: Albuera, variants Albufeira, Albuera; from Arabic al-buḥaira, small sea, lake) is the name of a lagoon near Valencia, the Palus Naccararum of the ancients. Part of it has been drained both with the alluvium and by artificial means, and is now used for growing rice. (C. F. Seybold)
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