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DĀMḠĀNĪ (2)

(581 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
nesba of a father and two sons from Dāmḡān who worked as engineers, builders, and stucco carvers in the early 14th century. This article is available in print. Volume VI, Fascicle 6, pp. 638 DĀMḠĀNĪ, nesba of a father and two sons from Dāmḡān who worked as engineers, builders, and stucco carvers in the early 14th century. 1. Ḥosayn b. Abī Ṭāleb Dāmḡānī was responsible for most of the superb foundation inscription in cut plaster that runs around the flanged tomb tower abutting the congregational mosque at Besṭām (Blair). The inscription, one of the fin…
Date: 2013-09-16

EBRĀHĪM B. ʿOṮMĀN

(221 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
Persian metalworker named in the inscription in Kufic script on the copper door knockers removed from a city gate in medieval Ganja (Soviet Kirovabad, Republic of Azerbaijan) and taken to the convent of Gelatʿi in Imeretiya, just east of Kutaisi in Georgia. This article is available in print. Volume VIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 66 EBRĀHĪM B. ʿOṮMĀN B. ʿANKAWAYH ḤADDĀD, Persian metalworker named in the inscription in Kufic script on the copper door knockers removed from a city gate in medieval Ganja (Soviet Kirovabad, Republic of Azerbaijan) and taken to the…
Date: 2013-04-22

GAČ-BORĪ

(1,489 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
plasterwork or stucco. Gypsum plaster has been used as a building material in Persia for more than 2,500 years. Originally it may have been applied as a rendering to mud brick walls to protect them from the weather, but it was soon exploited for its decorative effects. This article is available in print. Volume X, Fascicle 3, pp. 242-244 GAČ-BORĪ, plasterwork or stucco. Gypsum plaster has been used as a building material in Persia for more than 2,500 years. Originally it may have been applied as a rendering to mud brick walls to protect them from the we…
Date: 2013-05-29

EBRĀHĪM B. ESMĀʿĪL

(286 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
Safavid architect mentioned on two tiles: one in the dome of the tomb of Shaikh ʿAbd-al-Ṣamad at Naṭanz and another, dated 1661-62, in the south wall of the south ayvān of the congregational mosque at Isfahan. This article is available in print. Volume VIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 63 EBRĀHĪM B. ESMĀʿĪL, Safavid architect mentioned on two tiles: one in the dome of the tomb of Shaikh ʿAbd-al-Ṣamad at Naṭanz and another, dated 1072/1661-62, in the south wall of the south ayvān of the congregational mosque at Isfahan (Godard, p. 261). The latter inscription does not specify what work …
Date: 2013-04-22

JĀMEʿ al-TAWĀRIḴ ii. Illustrations

(3,169 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
Just as the text of Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh’s Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ can be regarded as groundbreaking historically, so too the illustrations to it are seminal for the study of art history. JĀMEʿ al-TAWĀRIḴ ii. ILLUSTRATIONS Just as the text of Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh’s Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ can be regarded as groundbreaking historically, so too the illustrations to it are seminal for the study of art history. Although illustrated books had been produced earlier in Persia, from the turn of the 14th century they became more common, bigger, and fan…
Date: 2013-10-28

RABʿ-E RAŠIDI

(2,747 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
the charitable foundation ( abwāb al-berr) established by the physician, vizier, and historian Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh in an eastern suburb of Tabriz. RABʿ-E RAŠIDI , the charitable foundation ( abwāb al-berr) established by the physician, vizier, and historian Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh (ca. 1247-1318) in an eastern suburb of Tabriz (Wilber, no, 34, pp. 129-31). Due to Rašid-al-Din’s position as one of the chief ministers in the Il-khanid government, he accumulated a vast fortune, which he used to construct pious foundations in various places aroun…
Date: 2016-03-29

FARĪD KĀTEB

(299 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
scribe active in Shiraz in the 16th century. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 3, pp. 280-281 FARĪD KĀTEB, scribe active in Shiraz in the 10th/16th century. He is known exclusively through signed works. The most famous is a fine manuscript of Solṭān Ḥosayn Mīrzā’s Majāles al-ʿoššāq in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (Ouseley Add. 24). The colophon is signed Farīd al-Kāteb and dated Ḏu’l-Ḥejja 959 /October-November 1552, and the fine nastaʿlīq calligraphy is embellished with a richly illuminated frontspiece and 74 (originally 75) paintings in the ty…
Date: 2013-05-26

EBN BĀBAWAYH (1)

(350 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
(Bābūya), family of Persian builders, luster potters, and tile makers, descended from the Shiʿite scholar Ebn Bābūya al-Ṣadūq (d. 991) and active in the 12th-14th centuries. This article is available in print. Volume VIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 2 EBN BĀBAWAYH (Bābūya), family of Persian builders, luster potters, and tile makers, descended from the Shiʿite scholar Ebn Bābūya al-Ṣadūq (d. 382/991) and active in the 6th to 8th/12th to 14th centuries in central Persia. Several members are known. 1. Emām Jamāl-al-Dīn Bābūya Rāfeʿī, a builder ( meʿmār), who in 572/1176-77 rebuilt the city w…
Date: 2013-12-19

ʿENĀYAT-ALLĀH

(271 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
Timurid builder or tile maker of the 15th century. This article is available in print. Volume VIII, Fascicle 4, pp. 429 ʿENĀYAT-ALLĀH, Timurid builder or tile maker of the 15th century. He reportedly built or decorated the dome of the Qobba-ye sabz (Green Dome) in Kermān. Sir Percy Sykes, the first European to refer to the building, reported that an inscription (now lost) was read to him stating that the building was the work of the master Ḵᵛāja Šokr-Allāh and the master ʿEnāyat-Allāh, son of the master Neẓām-al-Dīn, the architect ( meʿmār) from Isfahan, and was constructed in 640/124…
Date: 2013-04-26

EZĪRĀN

(251 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
a village 32 km southeast of Isfahan on the south bank of the river Zāyandarūd. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 2, pp. 129 EZĪRĀN, a village 32 km. southeast of Isfahan on the south bank of the river Zāyandarūd. The major surviving monument is a single-domed mosque with a well-preserved dome and two lateral corridors. The interior has a traditional tripartite elevation of square chamber (interior diameter 8 meters), octagonal zone of transition (with stalactite-filled squinches), and dome supported on a sixteen-sided zone. The meḥrāb recess—from which the or…
Date: 2012-01-20

Epigraphy (Islamic)

(5,690 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
Epigraphy (from the Greek epigráphein ‘to write on’) is the science or study of inscriptions. It is distinguished from calligraphy (lit. ‘beautiful writing’ Script and art) by the nature of the physical support on which the writing is inscribed. Epigraphy is executed on durable materials. In the Islamic lands these include buildings made of stone or brick, where the epigraphy is often carved in relief form, and portable objects made of wood, metal, ceramics, or glass and the like. Calligraphy, in co…
Date: 2018-04-01

Kufic

(3,642 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
Kufic (Arabic kūfī) is an angular style of script used in early Islamic times for monumental inscriptions and Qurʾān manuscripts. Derived from Kūfa, the city in southern Iraq renowned for its erudition in early Islamic times, the term ‘Kufic’ was introduced to Western scholarship in the late 18th century by Jakob George Christian Adler (1756–1834), a Lutheran cleric from Schleswig who was charged with cataloguing the Qurʾānic material in the Royal Library at Copenhagen. The collection comprised a mere five fragme…
Date: 2018-04-01

GEREH-SĀZĪ

(2,077 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair | Marcus Milwright
(lit. "making knot”), a form of geometric interlaced strapwork ornament that is commonly found in architecture and the minor arts throughout the Islamic world. In Persian Islamic architecture gereh-sāzī designs exist in a variety of media, particularly cut brickwork ( bannāʾī), stucco, and cut tilework (mosaic faïence). This article is available in print. Volume X, Fascicle 5, pp. 500-504 GEREH-SĀZĪ (lit: making gereh “knot”), term used to refer to various geometric designs in woodworking and architectural decoration. i. WOODWORK Gereh-sāzī refers to two related techniques…
Date: 2013-06-02

ASTARĀBĀD

(2,571 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth | Sheila S. Blair
(or ESTERĀBĀD), the older Islamic name for the modern town of Gorgān in northeastern Iran, and also the name of an administrative province in Qajar times. This article is available in print. Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 838-840 ASTARĀBĀD (or ESTERĀBĀD), the older Islamic name for the modern town of Gorgān in northeastern Iran, and also the name of an administrative province in Qajar times. i. History The district and province. This lies at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea, and is essentially a lowland and piedmont area, rather drier in climate and habitat …
Date: 2016-10-03

IL-KHANIDS

(20,368 words)

Author(s): Reuven Amitai | Sheila S. Blair | Stefano Carboni | Peter Morgan
the Mongol dynasty in Persia and the surrounding countries, from about 1260 until about 1335. The dynasty was founded by Holāgu/Hülegü Khan, the grandson of Čengiz Khan. This article is available in print. Volume XII, Fascicle 6, pp. 645-670 IL-KHANIDS, the Mongol dynasty in Persia and the surrounding countries, from about 1260 until about 1335. The dynasty was founded by Holāgu/Hülegü Khan (q.v.), the grandson of Čengiz Khan, and ruled the territory covered by present-day Persia, Turkmenistan, northern Afghanistan, the southern Cauc…
Date: 2013-01-23

FORGERIES

(8,825 words)

Author(s): Abolala Soudavar | Oscar White Muscarella | Sheila S. Blair | Francis Richard
of art objects and manuscripts. i. Introduction. ii. Of Pre-Islamic Art Objects. iii. Of Islamic Art. iv. Of Manuscripts. This article is available in print. Volume X, Fascicle 1, pp. 90-100 FORGERIES i. INTRODUCTION FORGERIES of art objects and manuscripts. Forgeries have had a long and varied history, occurring in such diverse fields as genealogies, official documents and letters, title deeds, false literary attributions, and manuscripts and paintings. Fabricated genealogies. Early in the Islamic era, Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī (see BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN) described in his al-Aṯār al-bāqīa
Date: 2015-08-21

ĀMOL

(1,931 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth | Sheila S. Blair | E. Ehlers
a town on the Caspian shore in the southwest of the modern province of Māzandarān, medieval Ṭabarestān. This article is available in print. Volume I, Fascicle 9, pp. 980-982 i. History In classical times, Āmol (Old Pers. *Āmṛda) fell within the province of Hyrcania, and in Alexander the Great’s time it was the home of the Mardoi or Amardoi, possibly a people of the pre-Iranian substratum, who were subjugated by the Parthian king Phraates I ca. 176 B.C. In the Sasanian period, Kavād’s eldest son Kāvūs was made ruler of the Cas…
Date: 2013-02-25

Yas̲h̲m

(2,104 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Sheila S. Blair and J.M. Bloom
(p.), the Persian term for the mineral generally termed jade. This is made up of one or the other hard, fine-grained translucent stones jadeite or nephrite, the first a silicate of sodium and aluminum and the second a silicate of calcium and magnesium. Both may be white or colourless, but are often found in a variety of other colours, such as green, brown, yellow, etc., because of the presence of traces of other elements such as iron, chromium and manganese. 1. In Islamic history. Nephrite was known to Eastern Turkic peoples as ¶ kas̲h̲ (see Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-thirt…

EPIGRAPHY

(25,397 words)

Author(s): Helmut Humbach | Philip Huyse | Sheila S. Blair | Sussan Babaie | Ziyaud-Din A. Desai
the study of inscriptions, particularly their collection, decipherment, interpretation, dating, and classification. This article is available in print. Volume VIII, Fascicle 5, pp. 478-510 EPIGRAPHY, the study of inscriptions, particularly their collection, decipherment, interpretation, dating, and classification.i. Old Persian and Middle Iranian epigraphy.ii. Greek inscriptions from ancient Iran.iii. Arabic inscriptions in Persia.iv. Safavid and later inscriptions.v. Inscriptions from the Indian subcontinent.vi. Ossetic epigraphy. See OSSETIC.vii. Early Per…
Date: 2013-06-17

GONBAD-E QĀBUS

(2,342 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers | M. Momeni, | EIr | Habib-Allāh Zanjāni | Sheila S. Blair
(now referred to officially as Gonbad-e Kāvus) is the administrative center of the sub-province ( šahrestān) of the same name and the urban center of the Turkman tribal area in northern Persia. It is named after its major monument, a tall tower that marks the grave of the Ziyarid ruler Qābus b. Vošmgir (r. 978-1012). This article is available in print. Volume XI, Fascicle 2, pp. 126-129 GONBAD-E QĀBUS (KĀVUS), city and sub-province in the Golestān Province. i. GEOGRAPHY The city of Gonbad-e Qābus (now referred to officially as Gonbad-e Kāvus) is the administrative center o…
Date: 2013-06-04