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Rosenberg, Alfred

(201 words)

Author(s): Sieg, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jan 12, 1893, Reval [Tallinn] – Oct 16, 1946, executed at Nuremberg), politician and cultural philosopher. When Der Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts (ET: The Myth of the Twentieth Century, 1982) was published in 1930, Rosenberg became a central ideologist of National Socialism. He came into contact with Adolf Hitler in 1919, became editor of the Völkischer Beobachter in 1921, and participated in the Munich Putsch in 1923. As the Nazi Party’s chief racial theorist, in 1934 he began developing a system of colleges. From 1941 to 1945, he served as Reichsminister for the Occup…


(165 words)

Author(s): Sieg, Ulrich
[English Version] Rosenberg, Alfred (12.1.1893 Reval – 16.10.1946 hingerichtet Nürnberg), Politiker und Kulturphilosoph. Seit Erscheinen von »Der Mythus des 20.Jh.« 1930 war R. ein zentraler Ideologe des Nationalsozialismus. 1919 kam R. mit Adolf Hitler in Kontakt, wurde 1921 Redakteur des Völkischen Beobachters und nahm 1923 am Münchner Putsch teil. Als Leiter des Amts R. baute er seit 1934 ein System der Hohen Schulen auf. 1941–1945 amtierte R. als Reichsminister für die besetzten Ostgebiete; am …

Reichsbund Jüdischer Frontsoldaten

(289 words)

Author(s): Sieg, Ulrich
Reichsbund Jüdischer Frontsoldaten Reich Federation of Jewish Front Soldiers. Founded in early 1919 by Captain Leo Löwenstein, this veterans’ organization worked primarily to counter the disparagement of Jewish World War patriotism. The organization’s local chapters quickly gained a following, especially among Jewish liberals. During the Kapp Putsch of 1920 and the Berlin Scheunenviertel ( Jewish Quarter) Riot of 1923, members defended the Jewish residents against Antisemitic attacks. In 1925 the Reichsbund jüdischer Frontsoldaten counted as the …

Jewish Census

(637 words)

Author(s): Sieg, Ulrich
Jewish Census A census of Jews in the German field forces, rear area, and army of occupation, including those rejected as unfit for service and those whose service had been deferred, ordered by Prussian War Minister Wild von Hohenborn in October 1916, and implemented on November 1, 1916. Owing to missing military documents, the administrative prehistory of the Jewish Census is largely unknown. It occurred at a time when the military position for Germany was characterized by a high casualty rate, fading prospects of victory, and a dire supply …

Balfour Declaration

(486 words)

Author(s): Sieg, Ulrich
Balfour Declaration Statement by the British government made in a letter from the Foreign Secretary Arthur J. Balfour to Lord Lionel Rothschild on November 2, 1917, expressing support for the “establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.” The Manchester-based British Palestine Committee had campaigned for the Declaration. The most prominent advocate was Chaim Weizmann, an advisor to the British government, who enjoyed good contacts with Lord Balfour and the (then) Chancello…


(604 words)

Author(s): Sieg, Ulrich
Judaism In all the belligerent states, Jews strove to give evidence of national loyalty. It would be well, however, to take care before singling out a particular Jewish patriotism. Western European Jewry was already largely integrated before 1914. Its national engagement was self-evident, and by no means a form of “total assimilation.” Statements by Jewish organizations that are usually interpreted as an expression of Jewish “hyper-patriotism” can be understood against the background of the press…


(880 words)

Author(s): Sieg, Ulrich
Antisemitism The First World War constituted a sharp turning point in the history of Antisemitism. It brought the radicalization of anti-Jewish stereotypes and gave rise to ideologies demanding the exclusion of Jews from what was perceived to be a völkisch (i.e. racially homogenous) German nation. The Burgfrieden (literally Fortress Truce: an agreement among political parties not to criticize the government or the war effort) declared by the Kaiser on August 4, 1914, was soon revealed to be no more than a “fair-weather” concept. In the very…