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Abasci, Abchasians

(230 words)

Author(s): Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀβασκοί; Abaskoí, Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 11,3 Roos, Ἀβασγοί, Ἄβασγοι, Orph. A. 754). West Caucasian people ( Caucasus) north of  Colchis, in the territory between the river Singames (today Inguri) and the harbour city Pityus (today Pizunda), mentioned by Byzantine authors as Ἀβασγία ( Abasgía; patria Abasgia, Geogr. Rav.) in the Georgian chronicle Aphchazethi. In the Roman imperial era they were partially independent; from Hadrian they received Rhesmagas as regulus (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 11,3 (Roos); under Theodosius I the alaI Abasgorum had its quarters in the…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Antiatticist

(195 words)

Author(s): Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen)
[German version] The designation of an alphabetically arranged lexicon which is only extant in extracts. It derives from the time of  Phrynichus Arabius (2nd cent. AD), who wrote a draft of a lexicon which was strictly Atticist, the Praeparatio Sophistica (σοφιστικὴ προπαρασκευή), as a counter to the Antiatticist lexicon. In the dispute with the strict Atticists, there was disagreement, amongst other matters, as to which writer should be regarded as the model for the correct style of speech; here the unknown writer of the anthology a…

Allegoresis

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) | Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard (Tübingen)
[German version] 1. Definition of the term Analogous to allegory ( Allegory) as a ‘figurative’, metaphorical manner of speech, allegoresis may be defined as metaphorical exegesis. In both cases two different systems of symbols are connected to each other with the help of specific rules: (basic) text and reference text, or wording (literal sense) and ‘deeper’ (‘real’) meaning. Allegory is a technique used in producing texts, allegoresis (or allegorical exegesis) is a technique used in responding to texts; it plays an important role in the  exegesis of holy scripture. The definition …

Nysa

(1,207 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Νῦσα/ Nûsa). [German version] [1] Wet nurse of Dionysus Wet nurse of Dionysus (Terpander in Lydus, Mens. 4,51) with cult in Athens (IG III 320, 351). Hom. Il. 6,132f. already knew of companions of N. Three Nysai meet on a vase by Sophilus (about 580). They appear in the sky as a group of stars called Hyades. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography T. Ganschow, s.v. Nysa, LIMC 8.1, 902-907; 8.2, 598f. [German version] [2] In Homer, the toponym N. refers to a mythical place In Homer, the toponym N. refers to the mythical place (mountain) where Dionysus was born or spent his childhood (Νυσήϊον/ Nysḗïon, …

Achilles

(2,497 words)

Author(s): Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) | Ley, Anne (Xanten) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Myth Hero from Greek mythology (Ἀχιλλεύς, Ἀχιλεύς [ Achil(l)eús], Etruscan Αχλε [ Achle], Latin Achilles). Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) [German version] A. Etymology We still lack a reliable explanation of A.'s name, which is presumably of pre-Greek origin. Explanations from antiquity vary: Schol. Il. 1,1 derives the name from the ‘sorrow’ ( áchos) caused by A. to the Trojans (i.e. the ‘Ilians’). Another explanation (e.g. Tzetzes, Lycoph. 178) derives the name from χεῖλος ( cheîlos; ‘lip’) and α- privativum; A. meaning ‘without lip’, as he is said to hav…

Eschatology

(2,768 words)

Author(s): Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Term and subject matter The term eschatology (from the Greek ἔσχατος/ éschatos, ‘last’), initially a term for the ‘doctrine of last things’( tà éschata sc. prágmata) as the final part of all theological outlines of Christian dogma, is to be found first in the 17th cent. as a neologism coined by Protestant theologians (Ph. H. Friedlieb, 1644; A. Calow, 1655-1677), and after D. F. Schleiermacher it replaced the older title De novissimis. In fact, though, the question of the éschata (Sir 7,36; Orig. Perì archôn 1,6,1; GCS 22,78,21f.) had often been asked back …