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Humiliation

(633 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] κένωσις/ kénōsis; exinanitio). The Christ-hymn in Phil. 2:6–11 describes the life of Jesus in two “stages” as a path from incarnation to the cross and as post-resurrection exaltation. The doctrine of the “state” of humiliation, which was not really articulated terminologically until the intra-Protestant dispute concerning Christology, adopts the central term associated with the first stage: heautón ekénōsen (v. 7). This doctrine expounds the relationship between the doctrines of the person and work of Christ. Beginning with the initial …

Walter, Johannes von

(152 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] (Nov 8, 1876, Petersburg – Jan 5, 1940, Bad Nauheim), church historian at Breslau (Wrocław), Vienna, and Rostock (from 1921). His edition of the commentary on the Sentences by Gandulf of Bologna deserves special mention, along with his studies on the history of the Reformation, including his analysis of K. Holl’s interpretation of justification ( Mystik und Rechtfertigung beim jungen Luther, 1937) and the Diet of Augsburg ( Luther und Melanchthon während des Augsburger Reichstags, 1931). His strength was the elicitation and vivid description of the inte…

Status confessionis

(393 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] The concept of a status confessionis comes from the situation presented in Matt 10:32f., in which – under persecution – one must decide (Decision) between confessing Christ and denying Christ. Not every situation requiring a decision involves a status confessionis. Paul, for example, considered eating food offered to idols irrelevant to a person’s relationship to God (Adiaphora). But those who could see eating such food only as separation from Christ should refrain (Rom 14; 1 Cor 8). The term itself emerged during the Adiaphorist controversy, in which Mela…

Thomasius, Gottfried

(190 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] ( Jul 26, 1802, Egenhausen – Jan 24, 1875, Erlangen), theologian associated with the Erlangen School (professor at Erlangen from 1842). Thomasius considered Scripture, the church’s confessions of faith, and the individual consciousness of salvation (faith) to be substantially identical manifestations of Christianity. He organized his dogmatic theology ( Christi Person und Werk, 5 vols., 1852–1861), focused on Christology and its implications, as a methodical explication of the consciousness of fellowship with God mediated through …

Hofmann, Johann Christian Konrad von

(868 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1810, Nürnberg – Dec 20, 1877, Erlangen). Hofmann was influenced by proponents of the revival movement, during his early schooling by Karl Ludwig Roth and during his studies in Erlangen from 1827 onward by C. Krafft and K. v. Raumer. He continued his studies in Berlin in 1829 (esp. with L. (v.) Ranke), and became a teacher at a Gymnasium in Erlangen after passing his exams in 1832. He obtained his Habilitation in 1838, became associate professor at Erlangen University in 1841, in Rostock in 1842, and returned to Erlangen in 1845, where he taught until his death. Hofmann…

Schlink, Edmund

(186 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] (Mar 6, 1903, Darmstadt – May 20, 1984, Heidelberg), one of the leading participants in the ecumenical dialogue following World ¶ War II. His academic career began during the Kirchenkampf; he was active in many functions on behalf of the Confessing Church. Initially he taught at Bethel; after the seminary was dissolved by the Gestapo in 1939, he served as a pastor. After the war, he accepted a call to Heidelberg, where the founded the first Ecumenical Institute. His multifaceted ecumenical involvement both in…

Salvation, Means of

(747 words)

Author(s): Oberdorfer, Bernd | Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] I. Dogmatics 1. General. Means of salvation ( media salutis) are creaturely, tangible (“outward”) media “in, with, and under” which the salvation (III) realized through Christ is communicated to human individuals in their own present. They are signposts that point to Christ as the medi-¶ ator of salvation and in that act of pointing make Christ himself present. The dependence of participation in salvation on outward mediation reflects incarnational theology (God himself was “realized” in Christ), soteriology (justification takes place pro nobis but extra nobis), …

Habit (Custom)

(855 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Stock, Konrad
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics Aristotle used the term ἕξις/ héxis (Lat. habitus) to describe the basic condition for people (and not merely their actions) to be ethically qualified, if humans are inherently able to regularly and willingly limit their affects in life's basic situations to the right, situation-appropriate degree (cf. Eth. Nic. II, 3 and 4 [1105a 17–1106a 13]). The regularity of right conduct, for instance, which permits a person to be described as “righteous” refers to a habit or disposition acquired through…

Wrath of God

(4,386 words)

Author(s): Smend, Rudolf | Hübner, Hans | Slenczka, Notger
1. OT 1.1. Using anthropomorphic or anthropopathic language, many religions described their gods in human terms; they could thus see them as wrathful. Fear of divine wrath was undoubtedly one of the main motivations behind the development of religion and also of the cult. Israel was close to its neighbors in this regard, as may be seen from an inscription of King Mesha of Moab (mid-9th cent. b.c.), who, speaking of the long-standing oppression of Moab by King Omri of Israel (§1.5), attributes it to the wrath of Chemosh, the Moabite god (KAI 181.5; TUAT 1.647; cf. 2 Kgs. 3:27). 1.2. Mention of …

Sign

(3,172 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Enno | Brown, Robert F. | Slenczka, Notger
1. Term A sign in the most general sense is something understood to stand for something else, for something other than the sign itself. To serve as a sign, it must be recognized as signifying what it stands for. People and computer programs recognize and employ signs. To determine whether other animals do too depends on what counts as a sign, and on the assessment of their cognitive and instinctual functions. There is no unanimity as to what counts as a sign or how to classify different sorts of signs. Some signs have a direct or natural connection between their characteristics or oc…

Traditionalism

(1,399 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas | Hilberath, Bernd Jochen | Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] I. Catholicism 1. History. Traditionalism in the broader sense does not correlate clearly with Christianity or any denomination. A tendency to invest long-standing tradition as a whole or particular authorities within a body of religious tradition with special dignity and binding force appears primarily in the context of attempts to deal with acute crises of belief and practice by maintaining a firm hold on the past. Catholic traditionalism in the narrower sense was therefore a 19th-…

Traditionalismus

(1,265 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas | Hilberath, Bernd Jochen | Slenczka, Notger
[English Version] I. Katholisch 1.Historisch. T. in einem weiteren Sinne läßt sich weder dem Christentum noch einer seiner Konfessionen eindeutig zuordnen. Die Haltung, dem Überkommenen insg. oder bestimmten Autoritäten des rel. Überlieferungsgutes bes. Dignität und Bindungswirkung zuzuschreiben, findet sich v.a. dort, wo akute Krisen der Orientierung und Praxis durch dezidierten Rückgriff zu bewältigen versucht werden. Der kath. T. im engeren Sinne ist daher als Phänomen des 19.Jh. eine Antwort au…

Logos

(4,012 words)

Author(s): Peppel, Matthias | Slenczka, Notger | Figal, Günter
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Fundamental Theology – III. Philosophy I. History of Religion The Greek noun logos (λόγος/ lógos), which is derived from the verb λέγειν/ légein, “to say, to speak,” designates the human faculty of speech and ability to reason, usually in combination, as well as numerous individual aspects such as: sentence, topic, oration, prose, teaching, judgment, cause, conclusion, and reason. In its earliest attestations logos refers to an “oration,” whose deceptive effects are frequently emphasized (Hom. Od. I 56) – thus in the personific…

Goods

(1,473 words)

Author(s): Himmelmann, Beatrix | Slenczka, Notger | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics I. Philosophy A good is something we actively pursue for ourselves (Action: I). Obviously there are different kinds of goods that we pursue: prosperity, health, development of our talents, friendship, professional success, the joy of love, long life, etc. Classically (Plato, Laws 697b, 743e) ¶ goods can be divided into three classes: external goods, goods of the body, such as health, and goods of the soul, such as friendship and justice. Our appetite for goods inevitably leads to confli…

Obedience

(2,323 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Beutler, Johannes | Slenczka, Notger | Schweitzer, Friedrich | Sieckmann, Jan-R.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Dogmatics – IV. Education and Ethics – V. Law I. Religious Studies Emphasis on the phenomenon known as obedience varies among religions, but wherever human beings are understood as hearers of a divine or sacred word obedience plays an important role as the claim of a higher, transhuman power on human beings. The religious will to obey presupposes prevailing over one’s own self-will for the sake of God or what is holy. The Enlighten-¶ ment, which calls human beings to autonomy, led to a crisis of the religious concept of o…

Orthodoxy

(11,720 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Hünermann, Peter | Wallmannb, Johannes | Kaufmann, Thomas | Morgenstern, Matthias | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Christianity – III. Judaism – IV. Islam I. Terminology The term orthodoxy derives from Greek ὀρϑός/ orthós, “right, true, straight,” and δόξα/ dóxa, “opinion, teaching.” The word and its derivatives appear in pre-Christian literature (Liddell & Scott, s.v.) but acquired their specifically religious sense only in the context of Christianity, where confession of Jesus as Lord or Christ plays a constitutive role in religious practice (Rom 10:10; Matt 10:32f.) and the need appeared early on to identify a…

Orthodoxie

(10,261 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Hünermann, Peter | Wallmann, Johannes | Kaufmann, Thomas | Morgenstern, Matthias | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Der Begriff O. leitet sich aus dem griech. ο᾿ρϑο´ς/ortho´s, »gerade, recht, richtig«, und δο´ξα/do´xa, »Meinung, Absicht, Lehre«, her. Der Begriff und seine Derivate sind auch vorchristl. bezeugt (Liddell/Scott s.v.), gewannen aber ihre spezifisch rel. Bedeutung erst im Kontext des Christentums, in dem das Bekenntnis zu Jesus als dem Herrn bzw. als dem Christus eine für den rel. Vollzug konstitutive Rolle hat (Röm 10,10; Mt 10,32f.) und früh die Notwendigkeit entstand, in einer V…

Parteien

(3,842 words)

Author(s): Hübinger, Gangolf | Oberreuter, Heinrich | Mayeur, Jean-M. | Slenczka, Notger | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] I. Begriff, geschichtliche und rechtliche Grundlagen Der Parteienbegriff blieb in der polit. Semantik der eur. Neuzeit stets mehrdeutig, und die hist. Ausprägungsformen der P. waren äußerst vielfältig. Als intermediäre, organisatorisch verfestigte Gesinnungsgemeinschaften zw. Gesamtbevölkerung und Regierung und legitimiert durch das jeweilige nationale Wahlrecht beförderten P. den Prozeß der Parlamentarisierung und Demokratisierung polit. Herrschaft. In England mit den Tories und Whig…

Parties, Political and Church

(4,565 words)

Author(s): Hübinger, Gangolf | Oberreuter, Heinrich | Mayeur, Jean-M. | Slenczka, Notger | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. Concept, Historical and Legal Foundations The concept of the party has always been polyvalent in the political semantics of European modernity, while the historical configurations of parties have been subject to extreme variations. As intermediary, organizationally cemented groups representing shared views and positioned between the general population and the government, and legitimized by the respective national electoral law, parties have helped promote the parliamentarization and …

Cross/Crucifixion

(4,480 words)

Author(s): Sundermeier, Theo | Taeger, Jens-Wilhelm | Köpf, Ulrich | Slenczka, Notger | Stock, Alex
[German Version] I. The Cross in Non-Christian Religions – II. Crucifixion in Antiquity – III. The Crucifixion of Christ – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatic Theology – VI. The Cross in Modern Art I. The Cross in Non-Christian Religions From prehistoric times to the present, various forms of the cross have appeared in many non-Christian cultures and religions, used both as a religious symbol and as an ornamental design (the boundaries are fluent). It is a primal human symbol. As such it is polysemous and has …
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