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Ḳāʾit Bāy

(1,444 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M. | Ashtor
, al-Malik al-As̲h̲raf Abū l-Naṣr Sayf al-dīn al-Maḥmūdī al-Ẓāhirī, sultan d’Egypte et de Syrie (873-901/1468-96). Acheté comme esclave par Barsbày [ q.v.], affranchi par le sultan Ḏj̲aḳmaḳ, il fut garde du corps, puis dawādār ṣag̲h̲īr, c’est-à-dire secrétaire dans le bureau du grand- dawādār [voir Dawādār], puis amīr de dix mamlūks sous Ināl, amīr de ṭablak̲h̲āna (c’est-à-dire amīr ayant le droit d’avoir une fanfare avec lui) sous le sultan Ḵh̲us̲h̲ḳadam [ q.v.], inspecteur de la chambre des boissons, et bientôt après, commandant de 1 000 ( muḳaddam alf). En 872/1467-8, il fut raʾs n…

Čaḳmaḳ

(547 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Sayf al-dīn, sultan d’Égypte, fut enrôlé parmi les Mamlūks du sultan Barḳūḳ. Il avança petit à petit jusqu’à ce qu’il devînt, sous le sultan Barsbay, premier chambellan (président du tribunal administratif), premier écuyer et enfin atabeg (chef d’armée). Barsbay le nomma à sa mort, en 842/1438, régent de son fils mineur al-Malik al-ʿAzīz Yūsuf. Les différents corps mamlūks qui avaient été constitués comme gardes du corps des sultans Barḳūḳ, Nāṣir Farad̲j̲, Muʾayyad S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ et Barsbay, rivalisaient entre eux et…

Muslim b. Ḳurays̲h̲

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
S̲h̲araf al-dawla Abū l-Makārim, de la tribu arabe des ʿUḳaylides [ q.v.], fut le souverain le plus considérable de la grande dynastie bédouine au Proche-Orient; sous son règne, la lutte entre les Fāṭimides et les ʿAbbāsides pour la prédominance en Syrie et dans la Ḏj̲azirā se décida en faveur de ces derniers. En 433/1042, Muslim, âgé alors de 20 ans, fut élu, à la mort de son père Ḳurays̲h̲ b. Badrān, chef de la tribu et lui succéda comme maître de Mawṣil. Comme la plupart des princes arabes des pays de l…

Muḥammad Bey ʿUt̲h̲mān Ḏj̲alāl

(929 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M. | Sadgrove, P.C.
, écrivain égyptien (né vers 1242/1826-7, m. 1898). Fils d’un griffīer nommé Yūsuf al-Ḥusaynī, il apprit tout jeune l’anglais, le français et le turc à l’École des Langues ( Madrasat al-Alsun) et fut nommé, dès l’âge de seize ans au service officiel de traduction ( ḳalam al-tard̲j̲ama). Son protecteur, Clot Bey, le fit nommer au Conseil de la Médicine ( Mad̲j̲lis al-ṭibb) en 1273/1856-7; après une série de postes, il entra en 1280/1863-4 au ministère de la Guerre ( dīwān niẓārat ʿumūm al-d̲j̲ihādiyya) et, cinq ans plus tard, au ministère de l’Intérieur ( dīwān al-dāk̲h̲iliyya); quelquesu…

Bahāʾ al-dīn Ḳarāḳūs̲h̲

(950 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
b. ʿAbd Allāh (c’est-à-dire de père inconnu) al-Asadī (Mamlūk d’Asad al-dīn S̲h̲īrkūh), al-Rūmī, al-Malikī al-Nāṣirī, fonctionnaire d’al-Malik al-Nāṣir Yūsuf (c’est-à-dire de Saladin); il était eunuque, obtint de S̲h̲īrkūh sa liberté, et fut nommé amīr. A la mort de S̲h̲īrkūh (564/1169), il jouait déjà un rôle influent: c’est à lui et au ḳāḍī ʿĪsā al-Ḥakkārī qu’on doit la nomination de Saladin comme vizir par le calife al-ʿĀḍid. Après la victoire remportée sur le soulèvement que l’eunuque Muʾtaman al-k̲h̲ilāfa, maréchal de la cour, suscita à la …

Muslim b. Ḳurays̲h̲

(1,024 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, S̲h̲araf al-Dawla Abū ’l-Makārim , of the Arab family of the ʿUḳaylids [ q.v.] was the most important ruler of this ¶ significant Bedouin Arab dynasty; during his reign the struggle between Fāṭimids and ʿAbbāsids for supremacy in Syria and al-D̲j̲azīra was decided in favour of the latter. In the year 433/1042 the 20 year-old Muslim was chosen chief of the tribe after the death of his father Ḳurays̲h̲ b. Badrān and succeeded him as ruler of al-Mawṣil. Like most Arab rulers of the lands of the Euphrates, he recognised the Fāṭimid caliph in Cai…

Čaḳmaḳ

(585 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Sayf al-Din , Sultan of Egypt, was in his youth enrolled among the Mamlūks of Sulṭān Barḳūḳ. He gradually rose, till under Sulṭān Barsbāy he became Chief ḥād̲j̲ib [ q.v.]. Chief Master of the Horse, and finally Atābeg (Commander-in-Chief). On his deathbed in 842/1438, Barsbāy appointed him regent to his infant son al-Malik al-ʿAzīz Yūsuf. The various divisions of the Mamlūks, originating in the bodyguards of the Sulṭāns Barḳūḳ, Nāṣir Farad̲j̲, Muʾayyad S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ and Barsbāy, were at enmity with one another…

Ḥād̲j̲ib

(605 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
(from ḥad̲j̲aba, to prevent any one entering) is the name of the office of doorkeeper e. g. Ḥad̲j̲abat al-Bait (the doorkeepers of the Kaʿba, see Lane’s Lexicon). It corresponds to the office of chamberlain in our time. We may here mention the theoretical explanation of Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn that the chamberlain should protect the ruler from troublesome visitors so that he may remain undisturbed in his important labours. In the western kingdoms (e. g. in Cordova) he frequently became representative of the Caliph and chief of the …

Ḥalab

(11,362 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
(Aleppo). a. A Turkish wilāyet in Northern Syria, bounded on the N. W. and N. by the wilīyets of Adana and Siwās, in the N. E. by the wilāyet of Maʿmārīyat al-ʿAzīz, in the K. by the sand̲j̲aḳ of Dēr al-Ẓôr, in the S. by the wilāyet of Damascus and in the W. by the wilāyet of Bairūt and the Mediterranean Sea. The district presents no marked geographical features; it is divided into three liwā’s or sand̲j̲aḳ’s, a. Aleppo, with 24,000 square miles, 672,500 inhabitants; b. Marʿas̲h̲ [q. v.] and c. Urfa [q. v.] the whole wilāyet has an area of 36,000 square miles, 995,800 inhabitants (79…

Ibn ʿAmmār

(574 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, a) Abū Ṭālib Amīn al-Dawla, al-Ḥasan, the S̲h̲iʿī Ḳāḍī of Tripolis, who seized the reins of government towards the middle of the fifth century a. h. after the death of the Fāṭimid governor Muk̲h̲tār al-Dawla b. Bazzāl and made himself independent of the Egyptian caliph. The town flourished under his rule and became the centre of the intellectual life of Syria. He founded a celebrated school and a library said to have contained over 100,000 volumes. After his death his nephew Ḏj̲alal al-Mulk Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥamma…

Ḳāʾit Bāy

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M. | Ashtor, E.
, al-Malik al-As̲h̲raf Abu ’l-Naṣr Sayf al-dīn al-Maḥmūdī al-Ẓāhirī , sultan of Egypt and Syria (872/1468-901/1496), was purchased by Barsbāy [ q.v.], manumitted by Sultan Ḏj̲aḳmaḳ, became a life-guard, then Dawādār Ṣag̲h̲īr , i.e., assistant dawādār in the office of the Grand Dawādār [see dawādār ], then amīr of 10 Mamlūks under Īnāl [ q.v.], Ṭablak̲h̲āna ( i.e., amīr with the right to have a band accompanying him), under Sultan K̲h̲us̲h̲ḳadam [ q.v.], inspector of houses of refreshment and shortly afterwards commander of a thousand ( Muḳaddam Alf ). In 872/1467-8 he became Raʾs nawbat…

Ḏj̲amdār

(91 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, (a contraction of d̲j̲āmah-dār, keeper of the wardrobe, see Dozy, Supplément, wrongly written d̲j̲amʾadār in Vuller’s lexicon), denoted a body of Mamlūks of the Sulṭān’s guard, who were perhaps employed in personal service at the court. They were divided into seven troops ( nōba) (see Ḵh̲alīl al-Ẓahīrī, Zubda, ed. Ravaisse, p. 116), Ḏj̲amdār is also the title of one of the higher ranks in the army in Hindustān, Balōčistān and Masḳat. (M. Sobernheim) Bibliography De Sacy, Chrestomathie, i. 135 ii. 185-186 Quatremère in Maḳrīzī, Histoire des Sultans Mamlouis, ia, 11.

Ibn Iyās

(764 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
(in the popular dialect pronounced “Ayās”), Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, is the most important Arab chronicler of the period of the decline of the Mamlūks. Born in 852 (1448) he seems to have been nearly 80 when he died, for his history comes down to the year 928. His family was of Turkish origin. His paternal grandfather, Iyās al-Fak̲h̲rī, a Turkish slave, called ‘min Ḏj̲unaid’ after his owner, was sold to Sulṭān Zāhir Barḳūḳ [q. v.], enrolled among his Mamlūks and reached the rank of second Dawādār. His great grandfather (his father’s maternal grandfather) had rise…

Ḏj̲āndār

(246 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
(also Ḏj̲andār) (p.) composed of d̲j̲ān weapon and dār “holding”, bodyguard: plural Ḏj̲āndārīya or Ḏj̲anādira. (Cf. Dozy, Supplément, s. v.). The Nōbat al-Ḏj̲āndārīya was in the Mamlūk and Marīnid kingdoms the bodyguard of the Sulṭān in his palace and on his journeys; it was their duty to conduct Amīrs to the Sulṭān at audiences or paying of homage, and with the dawādars and private secretary they took the mails from the couriers; they had to carry out sentences of imprisonment, torture and death by special command o…

Ḥamdānids

(2,302 words)

Author(s): Editors | Sobernheim, M.
The Ḥamdānids took their name from Ḥamdān b. Ḥamdūn, a member of the great tribe of Tag̲h̲lib (cf. his genealogy in Wüstenfeld’s Tabellen, C. 32). We find him as early as 272 (885) a close ally of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī Hārūn and a few years later in possession of the fortress of Mārdīn. When in 281 (894) the Caliph al-Muʿtaḍid advanced against this town, he found Ḥamdān no longer there; he had escaped, leaving his son Ḥusain [q. v.] behind. The latter opened the gates of the fortress of Dair al-Zaʿfarān to the Caliph, who soon afterwards captured Ḥamdān also. Cf. Ibn al-Muʿtazz in Lang, Muʿtadid ah Prin…

Ḏj̲ānbalāṭ

(355 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
al-Nāṣirī, Sulṭān of Egypt under the name al-Malik al-As̲h̲raf Abu ’l-Naṣr, was one of the Grand Dawādār Yes̲h̲bek’s Mamlūks; he is therefore also known as Ḏj̲ānbalāt min Yes̲h̲bek. [The placing of min between two proper names always denotes the relation of Mamlūk (the first proper name) to owner (the second proper name) and is identical with the personal nisba; thus, for example, Ibn Iyās calls the Amīr Ḏj̲akam indifferently Ḏj̲akam al-ʿIwaḍī and Ḏj̲akam min ʿIwaḍ. The copyists of the manuscripts no longer fully understood this meaning and thus a mist…

Iḳṭāʿ

(2,439 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
(a) in Muslim countries means: 1. the ¶ act of bestowing land which is not private property in return for taxes or tithes; 2. the act of giving the produce of land in place of or as a guarantee of payment on the part of the state treasury. Iḳṭāʿ may consist of: 1. the granting of a whole province as a fief to a governor (e. g. the granting of Egypt to Ibn Ṭūlūn by the Caliph on payment of tribute), as well as the granting of a few fields in return for tithe ( ʿus̲h̲r) or taxes ( k̲h̲arād̲j̲) or rent ( k̲h̲arād̲j̲-ud̲j̲ra) or a poll tax afterwards converted into k̲h̲arād̲j̲ (k̲h̲arād̲j̲-d̲j̲izya); 2. the a…

al-Malik al-Ṣāliḥ

(421 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī, son of Malik al-As̲h̲raf S̲h̲aʿbān (see the art. s̲h̲aʿbān) of the line of Sulṭān Kalāʾūn, succeeded to the sulṭānate on the death of his brother ʿAlī as a boy of 6 in 783 (1381). Some months later he ¶ was deposed on Ramaḍān 19, 784 (Nov. 26. 1382) by the Atābeg Barḳūḳ, as the kingdom required a man and not a boy on the throne. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī was sent back to the harem and Barḳūḳ, as had been arranged before, was appointed Sulṭān (on the events down to the restoration and second deposition of Sulṭān Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī see the art. barḳūḳ). In 791 (1389) Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī, who was now…

Mirdāsids

(194 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, an Arab dynasty in Syria. The Mirdāsids took their name from the leader of the Beduin tribe of the Kilābīs, Ṣāliḥ b. Mirdās. We know nothing of Mirdās himself. On Ṣāliḥ cf the art. and on his successor S̲h̲ibl al-Dawla, the art.; for the other members of the dynasty cf. ḥalab. In the beginning of the fifth (eleventh) century the Kilābīs migrated from the ʿIrāḳ to the region of Aleppo. In 414 (1023) their leader Ṣāliḥ took the town. The dynasty, at first so strong, gradually became so feeble that its last representative Ṣābiḳ exchanged the town …

Būrī

(182 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, Tād̲j̲ al-Mulūk, prince of Damascus, fought bravely and devotedly from his early youth at his father Ṭog̲h̲tegīn’s side, against the Crusaders. He succeeded him in 522 = 1128. The Ismāʿīlī sect [q. v.] managed to make their influence strong in Damascus through the Vizier Ṭāhir al-Mazdag̲h̲ānī; their representative Abu ’l-Wafā became almost more powerful than Būrī himself. The Ismāʿīlīs made an agreement with Ṭāhir to hand over Damascus to the Franks by a stratagem and receive Tyre in exchange. W…
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