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Creta et Cyrenae

(155 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] After the conquest by Q. Caecilius Metellus (69-67 BC; Liv. per. 100; Plut. Pompey 29),  Crete was organized as a double province together with  Cyrenae (Roman province since 74 BC), ( C. et C.). A short-term separation between the two occurred as a result of M. Antonius' declaration of independence (43 BC). In 27 BC, Augustus re-established the old order (senatorial province). The seat of the government was  Gortyne. After the Diocletian reorganization, the double province was dissolved (Cyrenae went to Libya Pe…

Ager Teuranus

(67 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Area in Bruttium. The only reference was found on an epigraphical copy of the Senatus Consultum deBacchanalibus from 186 BC, containing instructions for the local administration (CIL I2 581,30 in agro Teurano; cf. ILLRP 2, 511). Judging by where the bronze tablet was found (Tiriolo), the Ager Teuranus should be localized in the vicinity thereof.  Bacchanalia Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 945.

Ialysus

(372 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Persian Wars | Delian League (Ἰάλυσος; Iálysos). City on the north coast of the island of Rhodes; with  Lindus and  Camirus one of the three ancient cities of Rhodes. Situated c. 15 km south-west of Rhodes city, on the western slope of the 267 m-high mountain Filerimos (ancient name Achaía, Diod. Sic. 5,57,6; Ath. 8,360e), which functions as the acropolis of I. Settlement and necropolis from the Mycenaean period at the present-day village of Trianda. …

Matalum

(88 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μάταλον; Mátalon). Town on the Southern coast of Crete (Strab. 10,4,11; Stadiasmus maris magni 323), originally the harbour for Phaestus (Pol. 4,55,6), later for Gortyn; now called Matala. According to one myth, this is where Zeus made landfall after abducting Europa. Only a few classical remains from the Roman period. Some early Christian cliff graves on the northern side of the bay, now partly below sea-level. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Buhmann, s.v. Matala, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 410 I. F. Sanders, Roman Crete, 1982, 161.

Aletrium

(64 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in the area of the  Hernici (Plin. HN 3,63), today Alatri. Like Ferentinum and Verulae, A. did not participate in 307-306 BC in the war of the Hernici against Rome (Liv. 9,42,11) and was therefore rewarded like them with autonomy and   conubium (Liv. 9,43,23). A few structural ruins, i.a. an aqueduct and wall. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 654.

Ager Falernus

(55 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Region in northern  Campania (Plin. HN 14,62) between Mons Masicus and Volturnus, known particularly for its wines (Plin. HN 23,24). From 340 BC under Roman control (land distribution to Roman settlers: Liv. 8,11,13 f. 12,12). Pillaged by Carthaginians in the war against Hannibal (Liv. 22,13,9). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 689 f.

Sahara

(364 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (from Arabic ṣaḥrā, 'desert'; cf. Hdt. 2,32: τὰ ἐρῆμα τῆς Λιβύης/ tà erêma tês Libýēs, 'the desert region of Libya'; Mela 1,50: deserta Africae). The indigenous people today call only individual parts of the S. by their own name. The largest desert on earth, situated in North Africa, with an expanse from the Atlantic in the west to the Red Sea in the east ( c. 6000 km; c. 8 million km2). The S. underwent several cyclical climatic changes (Climate) in prehistoric times that shaped the vegetation and the natural profile; the last of these changes in…

Metulum

(55 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Main settlement of the Illyrian Iapodes, now Cakovac near Ogulin (in modern Croatia). It was destroyed in 35 BC by the future Augustus (App. Ill. 19-21; Cass. Dio 49,35,2-4). In the Roman period, M. had the status of a municipium (CIL III 10060). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969.

Landscape (Scenery)

(670 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] From a historio-geographical perspective, the term landscape carries several basic implications and connotations. Generally speaking, it can designate a space where historically relevant events have taken place. It is then attributed the quality of a historical source, to be interpreted in a variety of ways. Of further interest is the reciprocal relationship between man and landscape in terms such as: how did man perceive, design, and change the landscape? And how, on the other ha…

Olous

(223 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Crete (Ὀλοῦς; Oloûs). Dorian port on the northern coast of Crete, on the western part of the bay of Mirabello on the isthmus of the Spinalonga peninsula, modern Elounda. But for a basilica with splendid mosaics from the 5th cent. AD, the remains of O. are under water. In the Hellenistic period, a considerable prosperity developed in O., due not least to its double harbour, with correspondingly growing political significance. The history …

Sam(m)onium

(133 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Greek: Σαμ(μ)ώνιον/ Sam(m)ṓnion). Promontory on the northeastern tip of Crete, modern Kavo Sidero. Strong winds often prevented seafarers from rounding the cape. S. served ancient authors as a fixed point of reference for geographical information and the communication of distances between the islands of the Aegean Sea (cf. Str. 2,4,3; 10,3,20; 10,4,2 f.; 10,4,5; 10,4,12; 10,5,18; Dionys. Per. 110; Mela 2,112; Plin. HN 4,58; 60 f.; 71: promunturium Samonium; Ptol. 3,17,5; Stadiasmus maris magni 318 f.; 355; Acts 27:7: Σαλμώνη/ Salmṓnē in connection with the…

Antissa

(108 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Ἄντισσα; Ántissa). Harbour town in the north-west of  Lesbos, c. 9 km north-east of the modern Antissa, settled from the 14th cent. BC. A. was a member of the  Delian League, and participated in the secession of Lesbian towns on the initiative of  Mytilene (Thuc. 3,18. 28). It was a member of the Second Athenian Confederacy. In 167 BC, it was destroyed by the Romans, and its population resettled in  Methymna (Liv. 45,31,14; Plin. HN 5,139). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. …

Lato

(372 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Λατώ; Latṓ). City in the east of Crete, situated in an isolated mountain area at a height of c. 400 m, with a good view of the coast, 15 km away from modern Agios Nikolaos. Already settled in the Minoan period but then deserted by the inhabitants. In the 8th cent. BC, Doric re-establishment and then in the ancient and classical period one of the most prominent towns on the island. Numerous inscriptions document the engagement of L. in international politic…

Manliana

(49 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of two road stations in Italy: one on the Via Aemilia Scauri near Populonia (Tab. Peut. 4,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,32; It. Ant. 292,4) and the other on the road from Siena to Chiusi (Tab. Peut. 4,4; Geogr. Rav. 4,36; Ptol. 3,1,49).…

Praesus

(372 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Πραισός/ Praisós). City in eastern Crete (Scyl. 47) on the peninsula of Sitia, near the modern village of Nea Praisos (Vaveli) between three acropoleis. The location was already settled in the Neolithic Period (cult site in a cave to the north west of the town). Numerous remains from the Minoan and Mycenaean periods survive (megalithic building in the south; tholos tombs in the necropolis north of the town, in use from the 15th-2nd cents. …

Volcanoes

(360 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] There is no Greek or Latin term to be found in ancient literature corresponding to the modern 'volcano'; nevertheless, individual volcanic phenomena are identified, such as lava-flow: Greek ῥύαξ/ rhýax (< ῥέω/ rhéō, 'to flow'; cf. also Theophrastus's Perì rhýakos toû en Sikelíai mentioned in Diog. Laert. 5,49), Lat. Vulcanius amnis ('Vulcanic stream', Claud. Rapt. Pros. 172; from Latin Vulcanius, 'pertaining to Vulcan and his works'), saxa liquefacta 'liquified rocks' (Verg. Aen. 3,576) or massa ardens 'blazing mass' (Iuv. 10,130). For the Roman god…

Nedinum

(144 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Liburnia (Tab. Peut. 5,4; ILS 1989), modern-day Nadin/Croatia, on the road from Iader to  Burnum. The Roman town was built in the time of Augustus on an earlier indigenous settlement. As a Roman colonia and as municipium to the tribus Claudia, N. was part of the regio X of Italy (Plin. HN. 3,130).There is documentary evidence for the following officials: II viri, aediles and an officialis Naeditarum (CIL III 2860-2876). The town's aristocracy came from the indigenous families. The preservation of social structures and cultic observances i…

Aborigines

(286 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] In Roman tradition the name given to the earliest inhabitants of  Latium (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,10; Lydus, Mag. 1,10). The etymology of the name is uncertain: Lycoph. 1253 hints at a derivation from Βορείγονοι ( Boreígonoi;  Aeneas [1] was prophesied that he would settle ἐν τόποις Βορειγόνων; en tópois Boreigónōn); others -- on the presumption that the A. pursued a nomadic way of life -- formulate an onomastic development from Aberrigenes ( aberrare) to A. (Paul. Fest. 19; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,10; Auctor de origine gentis Romanae 4,2). The origin of the A. is equally controversial in ancient sources: they were either thought to be autochthonous (Lydus, Mag. 1,22) or immigrant  Ligures (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,10) or Greeks (Cato HRR fr. 6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,11; 13; 29 f.; Macrob. Sat. 1,7,28). Sall. Cat. 6,1 describes the A. as uncultured, sine legibus, sine imperio, liberum atque solutum, in contradiction to other authors whose records describe an orderly monarchic community. The following kings are named: Saturnus (Just. Epit. 43,1,3), Thybris (Serv. Aen. 8,72), Faunus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,31; Suet. Vit. 1,2) as well as  Latinus who is supposed to have given his name to the whole region. In a combination of foundation myth and fictitious historical reconstruction, the A. were linked with the Aeneas legend. While the A. appear as enemies in some versions, as allies in others,…

Mochlos

(123 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μόχλος). Small island  situated on the north-east coast of Crete and south-east of the Gulf of Mirabello. In Antiquity the island was probably connected to the mainland by an isthmus. Costly finds from the Minoan necropolis indicate considerable prosperity. Mochlos was also important in Roman (remains of walls and towers) and Byzantine times. Roman containers for holding fish lie beneath the surface of the water close to the mainland. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography…
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