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Ducarius

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name formed from -caro- ‘dear’. Knight, in a unit of Insubres in Hannibal's army, who in the battle at Lake Trasimene in 217 BC killed the consul C.  Flaminius (Liv. 22,6,3-5; Sil. Pun. 5,644-658).  Hannibal Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Troucillus

(94 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] C. Valerius T. was a respected man from the province of Gaul, who had the confidence of Caesar, who sent him as his interpreter to Diviciacus [2] in 58 BC (Caes. Gall. 1,19,3). Identifying him with C. Valerius Procillus, son of C. Valerius Caburus, the chieftain of the Helvii, and brother of Donnotaurus, is debatable. The latter and M. Mettius [I 1] were sent as Caesar's negotiators to the camp of Ariovistus, but were taken prisoner and freed by Caesar personally (Caes. Gall. 1,47,4; 1,53,5). Helvii Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 380-382.

Veleda

(235 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Germanic female seer who played a significant part in the Batavian Revolt in AD 69/70 ( Iulius [II 43] Civilis). According to Tacitus, she was part of the Bructeri tribe and lived in a high tower on the River Lippe ( Lupia; Tac. Hist. 4,61,2; 5,22,3). Among the tribes to the east of the Rhine, she was worshipped as divine and was invoked as an arbiter (Tac. Germ. 8,2 f.; Tac. Hist. 4,65). Petillius [II 1] Cerialis made her a secret offer of peace. Tacitus gives a satirical account of how some of the Batavi in oppositio…

Maelo

(98 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Greek Μέλωνος/ Mélōnos; Μαίλος/ Maílos). King of the Sugambri with a Celtic name [1. 374], who is supposed to have started the war against the Romans according to Str. 7,1,4; this probably refers to the defeat of M. Lollius [II 1] in 17/6 BC. After the forced relocation of the Sugambri to the left side of the Rhine (8 BC) he appears to have sought refuge with Augustus (R. Gest. div. Aug. 32). The son of his brother Baetorix, Deidorix, was carried along in the triumphal parade of Germanicus [2]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, 2.

Nerthus

(319 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Tacitus describes the cult of the mother deity N., adding as his own interpretation: id est terra mater (Tac. Germ. 40,2). He states that N. is venerated by seven tribes (the so-called Nerthus peoples), whom he includes among the Suebi living to the east of the Elbe. They probably lived in western Mecklenburg and were part of the Ingaevones [3. 460]. On an island (probably in the Danish Baltic Sea) he locates a sacred grove containing a cultic wagon concealed by covers. Only one priest ( sacerdos) is allowed to touch it. The goddess’s solemn procession, linked to …

Magalus

(47 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Greek Μάγιλος; Mágilos). Celtic name from maglo-, ‘prince’ [1. 234]. Chief of the Boii who offered himself to Hannibal [4] in 217 BC as an ally and leader for the crossing of the Alps (Pol. 3,44,5; Liv. 21,29,6). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Boiorix

(157 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic/Illyrian compound for ‘King of the Boii’ [1.497; 2.153]. [German version] [1] Prince of the Boii around 194 in Italy Titular name of a prince of the Boii in Italy who, together with his brothers, led the war against the Romans in 194 BC (Liv. 34,46,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of the Cimbri around 105 BC King of the  Cimbri, probably identical with the ferox iuvenis who in 105 BC killed the captured legate M.  Aurelius [I 18] Scaurus. Together with his fellow king, Lugius, B. fell at Vercellae, after first negotiating the t…

Tarcondarius

(75 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ταρκονδάριος/ Tarkondários). T. Castor I, tetrarch of the Tectosages, with a Celtic name [1. 1732]. In the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, T. and his father-in-law Deiotarus supported Pompeius [I 3], sending him 300 horsemen (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,5). After Caesar's death in 44 BC, he and his wife were killed in his residence of Gorbeus by Deiotarus (Str. 12,5,3). He was the father of T. Castor II (Deiotarus). Galatia Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder 2

Verucloetius

(45 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name ('famous far and wide' [1. 123 f.]). Leader with Nammeius of the Helvetian legation (Helvetii) that requested of Caesar in 58 BC to be allowed to march through the Roman province of Narbonensis (Caes. Gall. 1,7,3). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Dumnacus

(78 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Domnacus). Celtic name; leader of the Andes (Evans, 345). In 51 BC D. besieged Duratius at Lemonum with his army. When he failed to storm the camp of the legate C. Caninius Rebilus, who had hastened to the aid of Duratius, he attempted to flee across the Loire before the advancing forces of C.  Fabius. There he was overtaken, and cut down in the subsequent battle (Caes. B Gall. 8,26-29).  Duratius Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Orgetorix

(196 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic composite name: “King of the cudgels” [1. 108f.]). Influential and prosperous Helvetian nobleman, whose greed for royal power, according to Caesar,  led him to instigate a conspiracy by the nobility and in 61 BC to persuade his tribe to move away from its ancestral territory. Appointed leader of this enterprise, O. (according to Caesar) then made plans with Casticus and Dumnorix to conquer the whole of Gaul. In the spring of 60 BC his large number of followers prevented hi…

Cotuatus

(57 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic composite name from cot -- ‘old’ (Evans, 340-342). [German version] [1] Leader of an army of Carnutes Leader of an army of Carnutes, who in 52 BC attacked and murdered Roman merchants in Cenabum together with Conconnetodumnus. As a deterrent, Caesar had him cruelly executed (Caes. B. Gall. 7,3; 8,38). Conconnetodumnus Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Adgandestrius

(53 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound name of unclear origin with the Celtic prefix Ad-. Prince of the Chatti, who in a letter to the Roman senate offered to poison  Arminius (Tac. Ann. 2,88). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 128-130. E. Koestermann, Tac. ann. 1, 1963 A. v. Rhoden, s. v. A. RE 1, 359 Schmidt, 112.

Ollovico

(41 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic compound name: 'the one who fights all (enemies)'). King (?) of the Nitiobroges and father of Teutomatus, who had received the title 'friend' from the Roman Senate (Caes. B Gall. 7,31,5). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 106.

Deiotarus

(682 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Δηιόταρος; Dēiótaros). Φιλορώμαιος (regarding Celtic composite name cf. [4. 190; 5. 155]). Born at the end of the 2nd cent. BC the son of Sinorix (IG III2 3429); husband of Berenice; tetrarch of the Tolistobogii, king of the Galatians; died c. 40 BC. D. was a semi-Hellenized client prince of the Romans, and practised an energetic and unscrupulous form of power politics. He was one of the three Galatian tetrarchs who in 86 BC escaped the assassination attempts of Mithridates of Pontus. From then on he fought as an all…

Segovellauni

(96 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis in the area between the Rhodanus and the Druna (modern département of Drôme). With the founding of the province the S. were absorbed into the civitas Valentinorum or the colonia Valentia founded under Caesar or Augustus (Plin. HN 3,34; Ptol. 2,10,12: Σεγαλλαυνοί). Str. 4,1,11 subsumes them under the name Cavari. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 254-257, 272-277  J. Whatmough, The Dialects of Ancient Gaul, 1970, 80, 185  G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, in…

Camulogenus

(69 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound Celtic name, ‘descendant of the (god) Camulus’ [1.60-61; 2.160]. An Aulercan, who in 52 BC lead the  Parisii and their neighbouring tribes against T.  Labienus, but fell in a battle at the Seine (Caes. B Gall. 7,57-62). A gold coin of the  Arverni was possibly dedicated to him [3.419, fig. 454; 4.726-727]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt. 3 A. Blanchet, Traité monn. gaul., 1905 4 Holder, 1.

Dorulatus

(39 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name; prince of the Insubres. In 194 BC, D. led an army over the Po, but then endured a crushing defeat by the proconsul L.  Valerius Flaccus at Mediolanum (Liv. 34,46,1). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Ortiagon

(180 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὀρτιάγων; Ortiágōn). In 189 BC, he was the prince of the Galatian Tolistobogii tribe and husband of Chiomara (cf. [1. 151]). Together with Comboiomarus and Gaulotus, O. was defeated by Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso on the mountains of Magaba and Olympus [10]. He was able to escape and then clearly aspired to rule over the whole of Galatia in the Hellenistic manner. Polybius (22,21) praises O. as a generous, noble, intelligent and brave man. In 184/3 BC, Eumenes [3] II of Pergamon appea…

Teutoboduus

(77 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] The name is probably partly Celtic and partly Germanic [1. 202; 2. 277]. King of the Teutoni, who were annihilated in 102 BC by C. Marius [I 1] at Aquae [III 5] Sextiae. T. was captured in flight and in 101 handed over to Marius, who paraded him in his triumphal procession (Flor. Epit. 1,38; Eutr. 5,1,4; Oros. 5,16,11). Germani, Germania; Cimbri Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Scherrer, Die keltisch-germanischen Namensgleichungen, in: H. Krahe (ed.), FS F. Sommer, 1955, 199-210 2 Schmidt.
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