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Waluburg

(180 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βαλουβουργ; Baloubourg). Semnonian seer ('Sibyl'), mentioned on an AD 2nd-century óstrakon from Elephantine (in Egypt): Βαλουβουργ Σήνονι σιβύλλᾳ (SB III 6221). The inscription contains a list of people on the staff of the praefectus Aegypti ; W. was therefore in Roman service and may have been responsible for interpreting omens and soothsaying. Her name may trace back to Gothic *walus (pilgrim's/traveller's staff or magic wand). Other Germanic women seers probably also had political roles beyond their tribes, e.g. Ganna, a successor to Veled…

Catumelus

(43 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Catmelus). Celtic name compound ‘ceaseless in battle’ [1. 168]. Gallic prince who commanded a camp of relief troops on the Roman side in the campaign against the Histrians at Lake Timavus in 178 BC (Liv. 41,1,8). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Surus

(47 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] A Haedui nobleman with a name which is probably Celtic [1.472f.; 2.1678-1682], enemy of the Romans. In 51 BC he was taken prisoner by T. Labienus in a cavalry skirmish in Treveri territory (Caes. B Gall. 8,45,2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Holder 2.

Adiatunnus

(224 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Adietuanus, Adiatonnus, Adcatuannus, Adsatuannus). Celtic compound name from ad-ia(n)tu- ‘zealously striving (for rulership)’ [3. 45-47; 5. I 41,42; III 507]. Commander of the tribe of the Sotiates based in Gallia  Aquitania, who in 56 BC defended the oppidum of the tribe, Sot(t)ium, against P. Licinius Crassus. After a failed sortie attempt with 600 of his comrades ( soldurii), A. had to capitulate to the Romans (Caes. B Gall. 3,22,1; 3,22,4). A. is also mentioned in a fragment by Nicolaos of Damascus (Ἀδιάτομος; Adiátomos) (FGrH II A 80 [89]) recorded by At…

Vertico

(43 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Nervian noble (Nervii) who defected to the Roman side and helped Q. Tullius [I 11] Cicero during the siege of his winter camp  in 54 BC to send reports to Caesar (Caes. Gall. 5,45; 5,49). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 385 f.

Druids

(554 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Druides, Druida). Latinization of the Celtic stem *drui(d), ‘the very wise’; the ambiguity with the Greek δρῦς ( drys) ‘oak’ was apparently intentional (cf. Plin. HN 16,249) [1. 1321f.; 2. 430]. They were first referred to by the Peripatetic Sotion 200/170 BC (Diog. Laert. 1,1,6f.), later references are based at least in part on the lost historical work by Posidonius. According to them, the druidae formed, together with the bardi and   vates , a hierarchically organized branch of the Celtic priestly caste, with an orally-transmitt…

Brennus

(270 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
(Βρέννος; Brénnos). Celtic titular name, from the Breton brennin ‘King’ [1. 105-108]. [German version] [1] Gallian prince, defeated the Romans at the Allia, 390 BC In the Roman annalistic tradition, prince of the Gallic  Senones, who in 390 BC decisively defeated the Romans at the Allia and occupied and pillaged Rome. When the Romans besieged on the Capitol tried to negotiate the withdrawal of the Gauls for 1,000 pounds of gold, B. threw his sword on the scales as well, saying vae victis (Liv. 5,38-49; Plut. Camillus 18-30). Rome's destruction created the bogey of ‘barbaric …

Casticus

(79 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name from -ico- [1. 330-331]. Son of Catamantaledes, king of the Sequani, ‘the one who defeats the enemy in battle’ [1. 66-69; 2. 166-167]. C. was persuaded by  Orgetorix in 59 BC to seize royal power in his house as his father had apparently died. The triple alliance between C., Orgetorix and  Dumnorix failed because of the death of Orgetorix (Caes. B Gall 1,3,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans. 2 Schmidt. H. Bannert, s.v. C., RE Suppl. 15, 84-87.

Adgandestrius

(53 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound name of unclear origin with the Celtic prefix Ad-. Prince of the Chatti, who in a letter to the Roman senate offered to poison  Arminius (Tac. Ann. 2,88). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 128-130. E. Koestermann, Tac. ann. 1, 1963 A. v. Rhoden, s. v. A. RE 1, 359 Schmidt, 112.

Ambiorix

(196 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name (‘rich in land’?) [1. 48-49; 2. 124]. Prince of the  Eburones, freed by Caesar from the rule of the  Aduatuci and at first ally of the Romans. In 54 BC he destroyed together with Catuvolcus 15 newly recruited Roman cohorts under the legates Q. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius Cotta on the march to the encampment of Q. Tullius  Cicero by convincing Sabinus to leave the secure winter encampment in the Eburonian territory (Caes. B Gall. 5,27,2-11). A. therefo…

Veleda

(235 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Germanic female seer who played a significant part in the Batavian Revolt in AD 69/70 ( Iulius [II 43] Civilis). According to Tacitus, she was part of the Bructeri tribe and lived in a high tower on the River Lippe ( Lupia; Tac. Hist. 4,61,2; 5,22,3). Among the tribes to the east of the Rhine, she was worshipped as divine and was invoked as an arbiter (Tac. Germ. 8,2 f.; Tac. Hist. 4,65). Petillius [II 1] Cerialis made her a secret offer of peace. Tacitus gives a satirical account of how some of the Batavi in oppositio…

Ortiagon

(180 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὀρτιάγων; Ortiágōn). In 189 BC, he was the prince of the Galatian Tolistobogii tribe and husband of Chiomara (cf. [1. 151]). Together with Comboiomarus and Gaulotus, O. was defeated by Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso on the mountains of Magaba and Olympus [10]. He was able to escape and then clearly aspired to rule over the whole of Galatia in the Hellenistic manner. Polybius (22,21) praises O. as a generous, noble, intelligent and brave man. In 184/3 BC, Eumenes [3] II of Pergamon appea…

Dorulatus

(39 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name; prince of the Insubres. In 194 BC, D. led an army over the Po, but then endured a crushing defeat by the proconsul L.  Valerius Flaccus at Mediolanum (Liv. 34,46,1). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Ollovico

(41 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic compound name: 'the one who fights all (enemies)'). King (?) of the Nitiobroges and father of Teutomatus, who had received the title 'friend' from the Roman Senate (Caes. B Gall. 7,31,5). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 106.

Teutomatus

(52 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] ( Toutomatus; Celtic name: 'one who is good for his tribe' [1. 117 f.]). King of the Nitiobroges, son of Ollovico. T. supported Vercingetorix at Gergovia in 52 BC, but was able to escape a surprise attack by the Romans only by fleeing (Caes. Gall. 7,31,5; 7,46,5). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Divico

(55 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name, see Diviciacus [1]. Commanded the  Helvetii when they defeated L.  Cassius [I 11] Longinus in 107 BC. In 58 BC he was spokesman for the embassy sent to Caesar to make terms for ending the war after the defeat on the Saône (Caes. B Gall. 1,13-14). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Nerthus

(319 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Tacitus describes the cult of the mother deity N., adding as his own interpretation: id est terra mater (Tac. Germ. 40,2). He states that N. is venerated by seven tribes (the so-called Nerthus peoples), whom he includes among the Suebi living to the east of the Elbe. They probably lived in western Mecklenburg and were part of the Ingaevones [3. 460]. On an island (probably in the Danish Baltic Sea) he locates a sacred grove containing a cultic wagon concealed by covers. Only one priest ( sacerdos) is allowed to touch it. The goddess’s solemn procession, linked to …

Lutarius

(81 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Λουτάριος; Loutários also Λουτούριος; Loutoúrios). Galatian tribal prince with a Celtic name, as the leader of the Trocmi he was co-commander with Leonnorius. At the Hellespont the two princes parted. Leonnorius moved back to Byzantium and L. crossed over to Asia Minor with the aid of captured ships. Nicomedes I of Bithynia's offer then led to the reunification of the two Celtic groups (Liv. 38,16,5-9). Galatia Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography K. Strobel, Die Galater, vol. 1, 1996, 236-257.

Camulogenus

(69 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound Celtic name, ‘descendant of the (god) Camulus’ [1.60-61; 2.160]. An Aulercan, who in 52 BC lead the  Parisii and their neighbouring tribes against T.  Labienus, but fell in a battle at the Seine (Caes. B Gall. 7,57-62). A gold coin of the  Arverni was possibly dedicated to him [3.419, fig. 454; 4.726-727]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt. 3 A. Blanchet, Traité monn. gaul., 1905 4 Holder, 1.

Gargoris

(81 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[English version] Name ungeklärter Herkunft mit idg. Wurzel [1. 118-119]. Sagenhafter König der Cureten (?) in Tartessos, der das Sammeln von Honig erfunden haben soll. Seinen von der Tochter nach einem Fehltritt geborenen Enkel Habis versuchte er mehrfach durch Tiere töten zu lassen, die ihn jedoch verschonten oder sogar säugten. Den herangewachsenen Enkel erkannte G. und machte ihn zum Nachfolger (Iust. 44,4,1-14). Aussetzungsmythen Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M.Lourdes Albertos Firmat, La onomastica personal primitiva, 1966. H.J. Rose, Griech. Myth…
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