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Boduognatus

(58 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celt whose name is a compound from boduo and -gnatus ‘he who was born of the battle crow’ [1.461; 2.60; 3.152]. Commander-in-chief of the Nervii in the Belgian tribes' battle against Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,23,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, 1 2 Evans 3 Schmidt E. Klebs, s.v. B., RE 3, 594 Whatmough, 214.

Mal(l)orix

(68 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name compound with mall-, ‘slow [1. 236]. Together with Verritus, M. asked in Rome in AD 58 as king (?) of the Frisii for permission to resettle the tribe in Roman territory, took a seat in the theatre of Pompey among the senators and was given presents by Nero along with citizenship (Tac. Ann. 13,54; Suet. Claud. 25). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Druids

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] A. Druids in History (CT) The druid figure best known at present, Getafix (Fr. Panoramix; Ger. Miraculix), is distinguished by the fact that he does not divulge any of his secret teachings. And not only that - - apart from the traditional cutting of mistletoe with a golden sickle passed down to us in Pliny (nat. 16,95) - - Getafix is never observed indirectly or directly during a cult activity, nor does he function as a judge in his village. Clad in white an…

Cassignatus

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic composite name of uncertain origin [1. 167-171; 2. 165]. Galatian prince, in 180 BC ini- tially rejected by  Eumenes II, but later the leader of two alae of Galatian cavalry on the side of Pergamum and Rome against  Perseus. C. fell 171 BC in the battle by the Callinicus (Pol. 24,8; Liv. 42,57,7-9). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt.

Childeric I

(222 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Frankish king ( c. 436-482), son of the hḗrōs epónymos Meroveus and father of  Clovis I. (Chlodovechus). C. ruled the Frankish province of Tournai from c. 463, and was frequently victorious as an ally of Rome fighting in northern Gallia against the West Goths and the Saxons. He was probably also entrusted with administrating the province of Belgica II (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9-27; Fredegar 3,11-12 MGH SRM 2). A legend relates that he interrupted his reign with eight years' exile in Thuringia (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,12). C.'s tomb was discovered in 1653 at his capital Tou…

Cerethrius

(31 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κερέθριος; Keréthrios). Leader of one of the three parts of the Galatian army who plundered Thrace in 280 BC (Paus. 10,19,7).  Belgius;  Brennus [2] Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Indutiomarus

(170 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Leader of a delegation of the Allobroges, 1st cent. BC Celtic compound name from -marus ‘great’ [1. 96-98]. Leader of a delegation of the  Allobroges, who accused M.  Fonteius [I 2] in 69 BC in repetundae proceedings ( Repetundarum Crimen). Cicero defended him, evidently with success ( Pro M. Fonteio) [2. 83-104]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 B. Kremer, Das Bild der Kelten bis in augusteische Zeit, 1994. [German version] [2] Prince of the Treveri, besieged Labienus in 54 BC Prince of the  Treveri, father-in-law and opponent of …

Surus

(47 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] A Haedui nobleman with a name which is probably Celtic [1.472f.; 2.1678-1682], enemy of the Romans. In 51 BC he was taken prisoner by T. Labienus in a cavalry skirmish in Treveri territory (Caes. B Gall. 8,45,2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Holder 2.

Adiatunnus

(224 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Adietuanus, Adiatonnus, Adcatuannus, Adsatuannus). Celtic compound name from ad-ia(n)tu- ‘zealously striving (for rulership)’ [3. 45-47; 5. I 41,42; III 507]. Commander of the tribe of the Sotiates based in Gallia  Aquitania, who in 56 BC defended the oppidum of the tribe, Sot(t)ium, against P. Licinius Crassus. After a failed sortie attempt with 600 of his comrades ( soldurii), A. had to capitulate to the Romans (Caes. B Gall. 3,22,1; 3,22,4). A. is also mentioned in a fragment by Nicolaos of Damascus (Ἀδιάτομος; Adiátomos) (FGrH II A 80 [89]) recorded by At…

Vertico

(43 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Nervian noble (Nervii) who defected to the Roman side and helped Q. Tullius [I 11] Cicero during the siege of his winter camp  in 54 BC to send reports to Caesar (Caes. Gall. 5,45; 5,49). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 385 f.

Druids

(554 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Druides, Druida). Latinization of the Celtic stem *drui(d), ‘the very wise’; the ambiguity with the Greek δρῦς ( drys) ‘oak’ was apparently intentional (cf. Plin. HN 16,249) [1. 1321f.; 2. 430]. They were first referred to by the Peripatetic Sotion 200/170 BC (Diog. Laert. 1,1,6f.), later references are based at least in part on the lost historical work by Posidonius. According to them, the druidae formed, together with the bardi and   vates , a hierarchically organized branch of the Celtic priestly caste, with an orally-transmitt…

Brennus

(270 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
(Βρέννος; Brénnos). Celtic titular name, from the Breton brennin ‘King’ [1. 105-108]. [German version] [1] Gallian prince, defeated the Romans at the Allia, 390 BC In the Roman annalistic tradition, prince of the Gallic  Senones, who in 390 BC decisively defeated the Romans at the Allia and occupied and pillaged Rome. When the Romans besieged on the Capitol tried to negotiate the withdrawal of the Gauls for 1,000 pounds of gold, B. threw his sword on the scales as well, saying vae victis (Liv. 5,38-49; Plut. Camillus 18-30). Rome's destruction created the bogey of ‘barbaric …

Casticus

(79 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name from -ico- [1. 330-331]. Son of Catamantaledes, king of the Sequani, ‘the one who defeats the enemy in battle’ [1. 66-69; 2. 166-167]. C. was persuaded by  Orgetorix in 59 BC to seize royal power in his house as his father had apparently died. The triple alliance between C., Orgetorix and  Dumnorix failed because of the death of Orgetorix (Caes. B Gall 1,3,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans. 2 Schmidt. H. Bannert, s.v. C., RE Suppl. 15, 84-87.

Adgandestrius

(53 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound name of unclear origin with the Celtic prefix Ad-. Prince of the Chatti, who in a letter to the Roman senate offered to poison  Arminius (Tac. Ann. 2,88). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 128-130. E. Koestermann, Tac. ann. 1, 1963 A. v. Rhoden, s. v. A. RE 1, 359 Schmidt, 112.

Ambiorix

(196 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name (‘rich in land’?) [1. 48-49; 2. 124]. Prince of the  Eburones, freed by Caesar from the rule of the  Aduatuci and at first ally of the Romans. In 54 BC he destroyed together with Catuvolcus 15 newly recruited Roman cohorts under the legates Q. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius Cotta on the march to the encampment of Q. Tullius  Cicero by convincing Sabinus to leave the secure winter encampment in the Eburonian territory (Caes. B Gall. 5,27,2-11). A. therefo…

Veleda

(235 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Germanic female seer who played a significant part in the Batavian Revolt in AD 69/70 ( Iulius [II 43] Civilis). According to Tacitus, she was part of the Bructeri tribe and lived in a high tower on the River Lippe ( Lupia; Tac. Hist. 4,61,2; 5,22,3). Among the tribes to the east of the Rhine, she was worshipped as divine and was invoked as an arbiter (Tac. Germ. 8,2 f.; Tac. Hist. 4,65). Petillius [II 1] Cerialis made her a secret offer of peace. Tacitus gives a satirical account of how some of the Batavi in oppositio…

Ortiagon

(180 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὀρτιάγων; Ortiágōn). In 189 BC, he was the prince of the Galatian Tolistobogii tribe and husband of Chiomara (cf. [1. 151]). Together with Comboiomarus and Gaulotus, O. was defeated by Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso on the mountains of Magaba and Olympus [10]. He was able to escape and then clearly aspired to rule over the whole of Galatia in the Hellenistic manner. Polybius (22,21) praises O. as a generous, noble, intelligent and brave man. In 184/3 BC, Eumenes [3] II of Pergamon appea…

Dorulatus

(39 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name; prince of the Insubres. In 194 BC, D. led an army over the Po, but then endured a crushing defeat by the proconsul L.  Valerius Flaccus at Mediolanum (Liv. 34,46,1). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Ollovico

(41 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic compound name: 'the one who fights all (enemies)'). King (?) of the Nitiobroges and father of Teutomatus, who had received the title 'friend' from the Roman Senate (Caes. B Gall. 7,31,5). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 106.

Teutomatus

(52 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] ( Toutomatus; Celtic name: 'one who is good for his tribe' [1. 117 f.]). King of the Nitiobroges, son of Ollovico. T. supported Vercingetorix at Gergovia in 52 BC, but was able to escape a surprise attack by the Romans only by fleeing (Caes. Gall. 7,31,5; 7,46,5). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.
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