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Bayram ʿAlī

(127 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, place on the Trans-Caspian Railway, 461/9 m. (57 km.) to the east of Marw, with a Persian population, now in the Marw (Mary) district of the Türkmen SSR, situated close by the oasis of Old Marv which was created by the Murg̲h̲āb [ q.v.] and existed until the 18th century. Its ruins cover an area of some 50 sq. km. In the 19th century the region became part of the emperor’s personal domain, which existed until 1917. Today there is an agricultural research station and an agricultural technical school in Bayram ʿAlī. There are vineyards and orchards, and both silk worms and karakul sheep are bred. (B.…

Ḳarshi

(143 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, word for “castle”, already attested in ancient Turkish and Uygur (Turfan, the Kutadg̲h̲u Bilig ) and perhaps connected with “Kerd̲j̲iye” in Tokharian B. It was later adopted with This meaning by the Mongols. The town of Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab, or Nasaf [ q.v.], was called Ḳars̲h̲i after a castle built two parasangs from the town by the Čag̲h̲atay ruler Kebek K̲h̲ān (1318-26). The stream which flows through the steppes was called Ḳars̲h̲i-daryā. The town is mentioned in Bābur’s [ q.v.] memoirs and a popular etymology of the name exists. The town, was formerly an important trade-ce…

Čag̲h̲āniyān

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Arabic rendering: Ṣag̲h̲āniyān). In the early Middle Ages this was the name given to the district of the Čag̲h̲ān-Rūd [ q.v.] valley. This river is the northernmost tributary of the river Āmū-Daryā [ q.v.]. The district lies to the north of the town of Tirmid̲h̲ [ q.v.], the area of which, however, (including Čamangān) did not form part of Čag̲h̲āniyān either politically or administratively (Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih, 39). Wē/ais̲h̲agirt (= Fayḍābād) was regarded as the boundary with the district of Ḵh̲uttalān ([ q.v.]; between the rivers Pand̲j̲ and Wak̲h̲s̲h̲). Incidentally, t…

Faḍlawayh

(438 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, Banū , a Kurdish dynasty which ruled in S̲h̲abānkāra [ q.v.] from 448/1056 to 718/1318-9. Very little is known about them except for the founder of the dynasty Faḍlawayh (in Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 48: Faḍlūn) and for members of the family during the Ilk̲h̲ān period [ q.v.]. Faḍlawayh, son of the chief ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. Ayyūb of the Kurdish tribe Rāmānī in S̲h̲abānkāra, was originally a general (Sipāh-Sālār) under the Buwayhids [ q.v.] and closely connected with their vizier Ṣāḥib ʿĀdil. When the latter was executed after a change of government, Faḍlawayh eliminated th…

Balaklava

(431 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, in the Tatar language bali̊klava (with the folk-etymological meaning of “fishery”, “fishing-place”), a small port in the Crimea, on a deep inlet of the Black Sea. Balaklava, which is not visible from the open sea, lies 16 km. south of Sevastópól’. The town was known to the Greek geographers (Strabo, etc.) under the name of Palakion on the sea-inlet Συμβόλων λιμήν and was inhabited by Taurians, who used it also as a place of refuge. It came later under Roman and Byzantine rule and during the 9th-13th centuries acted as the cent…

Aḳ Ṣu

(30 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
( ak̲h̲ ṣu ), village near S̲h̲emāk̲h̲ī. (Russian Shemakhā) in Soviet Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. With a mosque, a bazar and with the ruins of “New S̲h̲emāk̲h̲ī” [ q.v.]. (B. Spuler)

Fūman

(314 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
( Fūmin ), the centre of a region ( ḳaṣaba ) in Gīlān [ q.v.], with (in 1914) about 27,000 inhabitants (mostly S̲h̲īʿī Persians: Gīlak) whose main crops are rice and some cereals, and who also produce silk. The town of Fūman is 21 km. W.S.W. of Ras̲h̲t [ q.v.] on the right bank of the Gāzrūdbār and it contains some four hundred houses. Before the advent of Islam in the 7th-8th century it was the seat of the Dābūya dynasty [ q.v.] and for part of the middle ages it was considered the most important town in Gīlān. After the country’s surrender to the Mongols in 1307, the prince…

Bāk̲h̲arz

(173 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(also known as Guwāk̲h̲arz), a region in Ḵh̲urāsān between Harāt and Nīs̲h̲āpūr (south of ¶ Ḏj̲ām on the river Harāt), regarded as being particularly fertile-; famous in the 10th century for its export of grain and grapes (and in the 14th century for its particularly good water melons as well). Mālīn (variants: Mālin and Mālān) was the capital of the region, and in the 10th century it had a population of considerable size. According to descriptions of that time, it was situated on the si…

ʿAs̲h̲ḳābād

(433 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(properly ʿis̲h̲ḳābād ; according to the Turkish pronounciation of the Arab word ʿis̲h̲ḳ , “love”, called by the Russians since 1924 As̲h̲k̲h̲abad, previously till 1921 Askhabad, 1921-4 Poltorack), a town, since 1924 the capital of the SSR of Türkmenistān. It lies in an oasis south of the desert Ḳara Ḳum and developed out of a Turcoman awl with (1881, time of the Russ. conquest) 500 tents. Already in the year 1897 it had, as capital of the district Transcaspia (Zakaspiyskaya Oblast’), 19,428 inhabitants, chiefly merchants and of…

Itil

(1,856 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Etil, Idil), the river Volga, called İti̊l by Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, i, 30, line 17, and 70, line 6 (= Brockelmann 244), Ati̊l by the Volga-Bulgars, Idel by the Volga-Tatars, Rau by the Mordve, Iul by the Ceremiss and Adel by the Čuwas̲h̲. (List of Turkish forms of the name in Ibn Faḍlān, ed. Z. V. Togan, § 50 d and in D. M. Dunlop, The History of the Jewish Khazars , Princeton N.J. 1954, 91, n. 8). The largest river in Europe, the Volga is some 3,694 km. long but has a descent, in all, of only some 229.5 m.: it lises at the village of Volgino Verk…

Aral

(1,643 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, a large, slightly salty lake in west Turkistān, 46° 45′ to 43° 43′ N and 76° to 79° 27′ E. with a surface area of (1942) 66,458 sq.km.; of this 2345 sq.km. are islands. (The largest islands are the Toḳmaḳ Aṭa in front of the mouth of the Āmu Daryā, Ostrov Vozroždeniya, "Island of the Resurrection", formerly Nicholas Island, discovered in 1848, 216 sq.km.; Barsa Kelmez, "arrival without ¶ return”, 133sq.km.; and finally Kug Aral, in the north, eastward in front of the Ḳara Tüp peninsula, 273 sq.km.) The maximum length from NE to SW is 428 k…

Bis̲h̲bali̊ḳ

(986 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, Bes̲h̲bali̊ḳ, the Soghdian (?) Pand̲j̲ikat̲h̲ (both meaning ‘Town of Five’), a town in eastern Turkestan frequently mentioned between the 2nd/8th and 7th/13th centuries (concerning the name cf. Minorsky in Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam , 271 f. and 2715). It was rediscovered in 1908 by Russian explorers, with the aid of information found in Chinese sources. Its position is 47 km. to the west of Kūs̲h̲ang (Chinese Ku-čʿöng) which was founded in the 18th century, and 10 km. north of Tsi-mu-sa, near the village of Hu-pao-tse. Its ruins (known as …

Čag̲h̲ān-Rūd

(211 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
( Čag̲h̲ān-Rōd̲h̲ ), the seventh and last tributary on the right of the river Āmū-Daryā [ q.v.]. It comes from the Buttam mountains, to the north of Čag̲h̲āniyān [ q.v.], flows past that town and several smaller places, and finally into the Āmū-Daryā above Tirmid̲h̲. The river is called by this name only in the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam , (71, no. 11, p. 363), and in S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī, Ẓ afar-nāma (ed. Iláhdád), 1885, i, 196 (= translation by F. Pétis de la Croix, i, 183). Muḳaddasī, 22, calls it "river of Čag̲h̲āniyān", and distinguishes it fr…

Altaians

(304 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
is the name of a Turkish tribe in the Altai mountains, partly professing, more or less nominally, Orthodox Christianity, partly Shamanistic; though Islam is not to be found amongst them, they had some contact, though possibly not an immediate one, with Islamic civilization (as attested by loan words such as kuday , "God"; shaytan , "the devil"). (Cf. for them G. Teich and H. Rübel, Völkerder UdSSR , Leipzig 1943, 28-43, 137 f., 142; W. Radloff, Proben aus der Volksliteratur der türkischen Stämme Süd-Sibiriens , i; idem, Aus Sibirien , i, 250 ff.; Bol’shaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya 2, 141…

Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī

(304 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, a word figuring from Mongol times (13th century) in Iranian and Turkish literature, particularly in historical literature. Like the Uighuric original, it begins by denoting the Buddhist priest or monk (= Thibetan: Lama). During the time when the Īlk̲h̲āns ( q.v.) were favourably disposed to, or gallawers of, Buddhism, the number and influence of the bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī in Iran was considerable. In Iran, central Asia, India and the Crimea—after the suppression of Buddhism in Iran (in 1295)— bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī denotes only a scribe who wrote Turkish and Mongol records (which were kept …

Ḳi̊ri̊m

(7,860 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, a peninsula jutting out into the Black Sea south of the Ukraine (Russian Kri̊m; English Crimea; French Crimée; German Krim; with an area of 25,500 km2), connected with the mainland by the isthmus ca. 8 km. wide of Perekop (in Turkish Or Ḳapi̊), and ending to the east in the peninsula of Kerč [ q.v.]. The northern and central parts are flat; to the south lies a mountainous area consisting of three ranges, the most southern of which, Mt. Yayla (1,545 m high), falls down steeply to the coastal strip. The climate is relatively mild and on the south-ea…

Bālyōs

(405 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, Bālyoz (originally Baylōs), the Turkish name for the Venetian ambassador to the Sublime Porte—in Italian, bailo (Venetian ambassadors at Byzantium had borne this title since 1082; other baili were at Tyre and Lajazzo/Payas near Alexandretta). The Venetians, immediately after the conquest of Constantinople, sent off as bailo Bartolommeo Marcello, who on 18 April 1454 made with the Porte a commercial treaty which renewed the agreement already existing with the Ottomans since 1408. Under this new treaty Venice had the ri…

Ču

(1,302 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, a river in Central Asia, 1090 km. long, but not navigable because of its strong current. It is now known as S̲h̲u (Barthold, Vorl . 80) by the Kirgiz who live there (and it probably had this name when the Turks lived there in the Middle Ages); Chinese: Su-yeh or Sui-s̲h̲e . modern Chinese: Čʿuci (for the problem of the indication of Ču = Chinese ‘pearl’ with the ‘Pearl River’ [Yinčü Ögüz] in the Ork̲h̲on Inscriptions, cf. the article Si̊r Daryā ). The river Ču has its source in Terskei Alaltau, and then flows to the north-east until 6 km. from the western end of the Issik Kul [ q.v.], known as Ḳočḳar …

Baikal

(267 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, in eastern Turkish (by iolk-etymology) Bai kül , ‘the rich lake’; in Mongolian Datai nor, ‘the ocean lake’; the deepest lake (1741 m.), and the largest mountain lake in the world, between 51° 29′ and 55° 46′ north, and 103° 44′ and 110° 40′ east, surrounded by high mountain ranges, 635 km. long, and varying from 15 to 79 km wide, with an area of 31,500 sq. km. Flowing into it are the Selenga, the Barguzin and the upper An…

D̲j̲adīd

(603 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Arabic ‘new’, ‘modern’; Turkish pronunciation d̲j̲edīd ), followers of the uṣūl-i d̲j̲edīd ( e), the ‘new methods’, among the Muslims of Russia. The movement arose in about 1880 among the Kazan [ q.v.] Tatars, who provided it with its first leaders; from there it spread to other Turkish peoples in Russia. The D̲j̲edīds were against ‘religious and cultural retrogression’; they pressed, above all, for modern teaching methods in the schools, for the cultural unification of all Turkish peoples living under Russian domination, but…
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