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Hazāraspids

(923 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, one of the local dynasties characteristic of Persian mediaeval times, which after the downfall of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire succeeded in maintaining their position in the hot, humid and mountainous regions of Iran throughout the Mongol period and to some extent into Tīmūrid times, and ¶ which thus contributed to the preservation of a native Persian individuality even under foreign dynasties. From their capital Īd̲h̲ad̲j̲ [ q.v.], the Hazāraspids ruled over eastern and southern Luristān [ q.v.] from about 550/1155-6 to 827/1424, though the extent of their domains varied gre…

Čag̲h̲ān-Rūd

(211 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
( Čag̲h̲ān-Rōd̲h̲ ), the seventh and last tributary on the right of the river Āmū-Daryā [ q.v.]. It comes from the Buttam mountains, to the north of Čag̲h̲āniyān [ q.v.], flows past that town and several smaller places, and finally into the Āmū-Daryā above Tirmid̲h̲. The river is called by this name only in the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam , (71, no. 11, p. 363), and in S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī, Ẓ afar-nāma (ed. Iláhdád), 1885, i, 196 (= translation by F. Pétis de la Croix, i, 183). Muḳaddasī, 22, calls it "river of Čag̲h̲āniyān", and distinguishes it fr…

Bāk̲h̲arz

(173 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(also known as Guwāk̲h̲arz), a region in Ḵh̲urāsān between Harāt and Nīs̲h̲āpūr (south of ¶ Ḏj̲ām on the river Harāt), regarded as being particularly fertile-; famous in the 10th century for its export of grain and grapes (and in the 14th century for its particularly good water melons as well). Mālīn (variants: Mālin and Mālān) was the capital of the region, and in the 10th century it had a population of considerable size. According to descriptions of that time, it was situated on the si…

Aḳ Ṣu

(30 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
( ak̲h̲ ṣu ), village near S̲h̲emāk̲h̲ī. (Russian Shemakhā) in Soviet Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. With a mosque, a bazar and with the ruins of “New S̲h̲emāk̲h̲ī” [ q.v.]. (B. Spuler)

Gayk̲h̲ātū

(311 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
Īlk̲h̲ān [ q.v.] from 1291 until 1295, the younger son of Abaḳa, was raised to power by the leaders of his country after the death of his brother Arg̲h̲ūn [ q.v.]. He ascended the throne on 23 Rad̲j̲ab 690/22 July 1291, when he also adopted the Buddhist (Tibetan) names Rin-čhen rDo-rje “precious jewel”; he was, however, in no way hostile to the Muslims, and he was the only Īlk̲h̲ān who did not carry out any executions. Earlier, as an official in Asia Minor, he had been renowned for his unbounded liberality; now he squandered…

Abu ’l-G̲hāzī Bahādur K̲hān

(760 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, ruler of Ḵh̲īwa and Čag̲h̲atāy historian, born probably on 16 Rabīʿ i, 1012/24 Aug., 1603, son of ʿArab Muḥammad Ḵh̲ān, of the Özbeg dynasty of the S̲h̲aybānids [ q.v.], and of a princess of the same family. He spent his youth in Urganč (at that time largely depopulated owing to the change of course of the Oxus), at the court of his father, who was k̲h̲ān of this place.. In 1029/1619 he was appointed to be his father’s lieutenant in Kāt̲h̲, but when his father was killed soon afterwards in a rebellion of two of his other …

Aḳ Ṣu

(584 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, town in Eastern Turkistan (Sin-kiang), about 6 km. to the north of the river of Aḳ Ṣu (see preceding article), approximately opposite to its junction with the Taws̲h̲ḳan Daryā; 1006 m. above the sea, 41°14, 7′ N, 80° E; on the northern caravan route, between Maralbas̲h̲i̊ and Kučā. A little upstream from the modern town lies another settlement called Aḳ Ṣu, and N. E. of both is the “Old Town”, which possibly both correspond to older settlements with Chinese names of their own (see below). Aḳ Ṣ…

Ču

(1,302 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, a river in Central Asia, 1090 km. long, but not navigable because of its strong current. It is now known as S̲h̲u (Barthold, Vorl . 80) by the Kirgiz who live there (and it probably had this name when the Turks lived there in the Middle Ages); Chinese: Su-yeh or Sui-s̲h̲e . modern Chinese: Čʿuci (for the problem of the indication of Ču = Chinese ‘pearl’ with the ‘Pearl River’ [Yinčü Ögüz] in the Ork̲h̲on Inscriptions, cf. the article Si̊r Daryā ). The river Ču has its source in Terskei Alaltau, and then flows to the north-east until 6 km. from the western end of the Issik Kul [ q.v.], known as Ḳočḳar …

Aḳ Ṣu

(170 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(T.), “white water”, (1) technical term for the original bed of a river (also aḳ daryā ), from which a canal ( ḳara ṣu or ḳara daryā ) is derived; (2) name of several rivers in Turkish-speaking countries; they are sometimes better known under other names. The following are some of the rivers that bear in Turkish the name of Aḳ Ṣu: (i) one of the source rivers of the Amū Daryā [ q.v.], also called Murg̲h̲āb [ q.v.] or the “River of Kūlāb”; (ii) the “southern” Bug (in Ukrainian: Boh) in the Ukraine (so regularly in the Ottoman historians), which forms at its issue into the …

Dihistān

(775 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, name of two towns, and their respective districts in north-eastern Īrān: 1) A town north-east of Harāt, the capital of the southern part of the Bādg̲h̲īs [ q.v.] region, and the second largest town in that region (“half the size of Būs̲h̲and̲j̲”), and according to Yāḳūt (i, 461), the capital of the whole of Bādg̲h̲īs around the year 596/1200. The town was situated upon a hill in a fertile area, and near a silver mine; it was built of brick. In 98/716-7, Dihistān is mentioned as the seat of a Persian dihḳān (Ṭabarī, ii, 1320); ca. 426/1035, it came into the possession of a Turkish dihḳān (these tit…

Banākat

(311 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B
, more correctly B/Pinākat̲h̲ (thus in Muḳaddasī, 277, l. 1; in Sogdian: Bi/unēkat̲h̲, “chief town”, “capital”), but in D̲j̲uwaynī, i, 47 Fanāka(n)t—a small town at the confluence of the Ilak (today the Āhangarān/Angren), flowing from the right, with the Jaxartes (Iranian: Ḵh̲as̲h̲ant— cf. Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam , 118, 210 ff., and also ibid., 72, where it is named Ūzgand). It lies almost south-east of Tas̲h̲kent (Čāč/S̲h̲ās̲h̲) and was once a flourishing place ( Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam, 118), possessed however no walls and had its mosque in the bazaar (Muḳaddasī, 277; cf. also al-Ḵh̲wārizmī, in C. A…

Gūrk̲h̲ān

(262 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, the title borne by the (non-Muslim) rulers of Ḳarak̲h̲itāy [ q.v.] (Chinese Hsi Liao = ¶ Western Liao) who governed central Asia between 522-5/1128-31 and 608/1212 (or, with Güčlük, till 615/1218). The first ruler was Yeh-lü Ta-s̲h̲ih (d. 537/1143), a prince from the north Chinese dynasty of Liao, of the Kʿi-tan (Ḵh̲itāy) people. He overthrew the regime of the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids [ q.v.] or Ilig-k̲h̲āns and in 535/1141 defeated the Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultan Sand̲j̲ar [ q.v.] decisively in the Ḳaṭwān plain, north of Samarḳand: the victory of a non-Muslim ruler from the East over …

Ḳarshi

(143 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, word for “castle”, already attested in ancient Turkish and Uygur (Turfan, the Kutadg̲h̲u Bilig ) and perhaps connected with “Kerd̲j̲iye” in Tokharian B. It was later adopted with This meaning by the Mongols. The town of Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab, or Nasaf [ q.v.], was called Ḳars̲h̲i after a castle built two parasangs from the town by the Čag̲h̲atay ruler Kebek K̲h̲ān (1318-26). The stream which flows through the steppes was called Ḳars̲h̲i-daryā. The town is mentioned in Bābur’s [ q.v.] memoirs and a popular etymology of the name exists. The town, was formerly an important trade-ce…

Consul

(868 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Arab. Ḳunşul ; Pers. Ḳunṣūl ; Turk. Konsolos ), consuls as representatives of the interests of foreign states in Islamic countries (and similarly in Byzantium). The institution of the consul was formed in the 12th and 13th centuries in the Italian merchant republics. The Genoese put their possessions in the Crimea (see Ki̊ri̊m ); since 1266), nominally subject to the Ḵh̲ān of the Golden Horde, in the charge of a consul (B. Spuler: Die Goldene Horde , Leipzig 1943, 392-8, with further bibl.; E. S. Zevakin and N. A. Penčko: Očerki po istorii genuėzskik̲h̲ koloniy ..., ( ‘Sketches on the History…

Faḍlawayh

(438 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, Banū , a Kurdish dynasty which ruled in S̲h̲abānkāra [ q.v.] from 448/1056 to 718/1318-9. Very little is known about them except for the founder of the dynasty Faḍlawayh (in Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 48: Faḍlūn) and for members of the family during the Ilk̲h̲ān period [ q.v.]. Faḍlawayh, son of the chief ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. Ayyūb of the Kurdish tribe Rāmānī in S̲h̲abānkāra, was originally a general (Sipāh-Sālār) under the Buwayhids [ q.v.] and closely connected with their vizier Ṣāḥib ʿĀdil. When the latter was executed after a change of government, Faḍlawayh eliminated th…

Ḥasanak

(516 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, properly, Abū ʿAlī Ḥasan b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbbās (d. 423/1032), the last wazīr of Maḥmūd [ q.v.] of G̲h̲azna. Becoming governor of K̲h̲urāsān at an early age, Ḥasanak went on the pilgrimage in 414/1023 and allowed himself to be persuaded (Bayhaḳī, 209) to return via Cairo and there to accept a robe of honour ( k̲h̲ilʿa ) from the Fāṭimid Caliph al-Ẓāhir. This resulted in his being suspected by the ʿAbbāsid Caliph al-Ḳādir of being an adherent of the Fāṭimid Caliphate. After his return to G̲h̲azna, therefore, the ʿAbbāsid Caliph demanded of Maḥmūd that he should have him executed «as a Ḳarmaṭī» [ q…

Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī

(304 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, a word figuring from Mongol times (13th century) in Iranian and Turkish literature, particularly in historical literature. Like the Uighuric original, it begins by denoting the Buddhist priest or monk (= Thibetan: Lama). During the time when the Īlk̲h̲āns ( q.v.) were favourably disposed to, or gallawers of, Buddhism, the number and influence of the bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī in Iran was considerable. In Iran, central Asia, India and the Crimea—after the suppression of Buddhism in Iran (in 1295)— bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī denotes only a scribe who wrote Turkish and Mongol records (which were kept …

Altaians

(304 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
is the name of a Turkish tribe in the Altai mountains, partly professing, more or less nominally, Orthodox Christianity, partly Shamanistic; though Islam is not to be found amongst them, they had some contact, though possibly not an immediate one, with Islamic civilization (as attested by loan words such as kuday , "God"; shaytan , "the devil"). (Cf. for them G. Teich and H. Rübel, Völkerder UdSSR , Leipzig 1943, 28-43, 137 f., 142; W. Radloff, Proben aus der Volksliteratur der türkischen Stämme Süd-Sibiriens , i; idem, Aus Sibirien , i, 250 ff.; Bol’shaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya 2, 141…

Gīlān

(1,424 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, a historic region around the delta of the river Safīd-rūd [ q.v.], was the homeland of the Gēl people (Gelae, Γῆλαι; = Καδούϭιοι) in antiquity. The present Persian inhabitants, who speak a special dialect (cf. G. Melgunoff, Essai sur les dialectes ... du Ghîlân ..., in ZDMG, xvii (1868), 195-224, and the article iran: Languages) bear the name Gīlak (at an earlier period also Gīl). The derivation of the name from gil “clay”, in allusion to the marshes of the region, is a piece of folk etymology. In the middle ages Gīlān first extended as far as the Čālūs in the south east; later i…

Kālif

(183 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, also Kaylif , a town on the Amu-Daryā (al-Masʿūdī, viii, 64 calls the latter “Kālif River”), west-north-west of Tirmid̲h̲. The main part of the town with the fortress Rībāṭ D̲h̲ī-l-Ḳarnayn lay to the south of the river; there was a castle nearby. On the outskirts on the northern bank lay the fortress called Ribāṭ Dhīl-Kifl [see d̲h̲u ’l-ḳifl ]. In 1220 the Khwārizms̲h̲āh Muḥammad II marched on the town to prevent the Mongols from crossing the Amū-Daryā. According to Mustawfī, Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb , 156 (translation 153), Kālif was famous in the 8th/14th cen…
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