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IV. Synchronische Übersichten

(3,089 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank
IV. 1. Synchronische Übersicht zu den wichtigsten Staaten des Alten Orients im 2. Jt. v. Chr. Überlieferungsbedingt ist es bis heute nicht möglich, die altorientalische Chronologie für das 2. Jt. v. Chr. durchgehend nach einem allgemein anerkannten Ansatz absolut festzulegen. Für die Zeit vor 1500 stehen sich v.a. die sog. »mittlere Chronologie« und die um 64 Jahre1 niedrigere »kurze Chronologie« gegenüber (Schlüsseldatum ist das Jahr der Eroberung Babylons durch die Hethiter, das auf 1595 bzw. auf 1531 datiert wird). Erstere Chronologie wird der Geschichte Mesopotamiens ohne weiteres gerecht, bietet aber im Unterschied zu letzterer Probleme bei der Einbeziehung Syriens, Mittanis und v.a. des hethiterzeitlichen Kleinasiens (Ḫattusa II.). Diese Staaten sind zudem eng mit der Geschichte Ägyptens verzahnt, so daß hier notwendigerweise auch der von Vorderasien unabhängigen ägyptischen Chronologie Rechnung zu tragen ist.…

IV. Synchronistic charts

(3,304 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank
IV. I. Synchronistic overview of the main states of the ancient Near East in the second millennium BC On the basis of the extant textual tradition, it remains impossible to determine an absolute and continuous chronology of the ancient Near East in the second millennium BC by using one generally accepted beginning point. For the period prior to 1500 BC the so-called “middle chronology” and “low chronology” (shifted about 64 years forward1) are irreconcilable alternatives; the crucial date is the year in which Babylon was taken by the Hittites, dated to 1595 or 1531…

Hieroglyphic scripts

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Günter (Würzburg) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Crete A script that was formerly also described as ‘pictographic’ (but is still undeciphered) with many image-like symbols (human and animal body parts, plants, fruit, vessels, weapons, musical instruments, etc.) was created by the Minoan culture in Crete and especially used during the First Palace Period (1900-1700 BC). However, its origins are much older. The inspiration may have come from Egypt or the Levant, but the ‘Anatolian hieroglyphs’ are later. The evidence comes…

Anatolian languages

(472 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] The earliest documented Indo-Germanic language branch, which occurs in Asia Minor; ranged in the 2nd millennium from the Aegean coast to the Euphrates, gradually in the 1st millennium through  Phrygia, later above all through  Greece until it penetrated relatively inaccessible parts of the Taurus mountains (East Pisidia, Lycaonia, Isauria), where Anatolian (Luwian) language carriers remained, probably until the early Byzantine era. To the Anatolian languages (AL) belong  Hittite. …

Pandarus

(805 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Πάνδαρος; Pándaros, Lat. Pandarus). [German version] [1] Trojan troop commander Trojan troop commander, son of Lycaon (but cf. also Carcabus);Verg. Aen. 5,495-497 mentions Eurythion [5] as his brother. According to Hom. Il. 4,103 and 121, P. lived in Zelia (Troas) the contingent of which was under his command (Hom. Il. 2,824-827), whilst Hom. Il. 5,105 and (implicitly) 173 identifies Lycia (Lycii, Lycia) as his country of origin eventhough the Lycian troop contingent was led by Sarpedon and Glaucus [4] (…

Lukka

(660 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Hittite name attested in the 14th-13th cents. BC ( Lu-uk-ka/ ka4-a- [Lukkā-], with a stem ending of prolonged grade and certainly accented. Akkadian Lukki, Egyptian Rk [Luka/i]) for the area encompassing southwestern Asia Minor, western Pamphylia/ western Pisidia, Lycia and southern Caria, which stretched in the east to the Cestrus (Hittite Kastraja), in the north to Arzawa (or Mira) and bordered on Mycenaean settled Millawa(n)da ( Miletus) ( Hattusa II with map). It should be understood only in the political and geographical senses, especially as the ethnic terms ‘people’ and ‘tribe’ are completely foreign to Anatolian Asia Minor ( Anatolian languages), while the term ‘the Lukka’, often encountered in the secondary literature and evoking a tribal concept, has no grounds and furthermore is a linguistic mistake, as the inhabitants of L. should clearly be designated as ‘Lukkans’. Like the whole of western and southern Asia Minor, L. was Luwian-speaking, but by the 2nd millennium the Luwian dialect ( Luwian) may have been limited to the peninsula of Lycia or…

Luwian

(2,869 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Documented period, language area Derived from the Hittite designation Luu̯ili-, Luwian is the term for the most widespread representative of the Anatolian languages in Asia Minor. It is attested in two dialects, both recorded in different writing systems. Cuneiform Luwian (CL, 16th to 13th cent. BC) and Hieroglyphic Luwian (HL, 15th to early 7th cent. BC), as well as in its late successors Pisidian (Pi…

Sēḫa (Seha River Land)

(776 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Geographic location, borders Luwian-speaking (Luwian) state in Northwestern Asia Minor documented in Hittite transmission in the 15th-13th cents. BC. Its core area comprised the valleys of the Hermus [2] and the Caecus [1] (merging near the coast), and its name is derived from one of these two rivers. The Hittite designation is Sēḫas utnē (in Akkadian orthography KUR ÍD ŠE-E-ḪA) 'the land of S.,' while the name 'river land of S.', often found in secondary literature, is based on the inappropriate translation of the determinative ÍD 'river.' In the north, S. borde…

Horsemanship

(884 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Introduction Horsemanship refers to the riding style developed in ancient times for military use of the  horse that has remained dominant up to the present time for European riding - the ‘classical riding style’. It is distinguished from other riding styles (that were only passed down or arose in modern times) in that in the training of the horse it is not satisfied with mere habituation but follows a systematic, gradually increased exercise programme that is based on strict obse…

Hittite

(863 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Tradition The language, passed down to us in Babylonian cuneiform, of the Hittites who had political leadership in Asia Minor in the 2nd millennium BC (core area appr. the geographical region outlined by Halys/Kızıl İrmak,  Ḫattusa II), which they themselves called Nesumnili- ‘Nesic’, a derivative of the place name Nēsa-

Tarhuntassa

(247 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Inland country of the Hittite Empire (Ḫattusa II. with map) in southern Asia Minor, which first makes an appearance in history at the time of Muwattalli II ( c. 1290-1272 BC) during the temporary relocation of the Hittite capital to this region's capital of the same name (T.; at modern Karaman or in the upper  Calycadnus valley). After Mursili III Urḫitesub ( c. 1272-1265) was deposed, Ḫattusili II (previously “III”; c.  1265-1240) established in T., as compensation for his brother Kurunta Ulmitesub who had been excluded from the legitimate successi…

Asia Minor

(16,327 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich (Tübingen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Name Strabo was the first to refer to the peninsula of Asia Minor (AM) west of the  Taurus (Str. 2,5,24; 12,1,3; cf. Plin. HN 5,27f.; Ptol. 5,2) as a single unit by the name of

Palaic

(335 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] The language of the country of Plā (cuneiform Pa-la-a-) situated northwest of the Halys in Paphlagonia. It belongs to the Anatolian languages and is passed down from the 16th-15th cent. BC by the Hittites (Ḫattusa II, Hittite). The names of Plā and of neighbouring Tum(m)anna (Ḫattusa II , map), survive in the Greek regional names Blaē̈nḗ and Domanítis. It would therefore seem more accurate if the name of the language, which derives from Hittite Plaumnili- (derivation from the ethnic name Plaumen-*), were 'Plaic'. The extent of the area in which P. was spoken is…

Horse

(4,764 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Raepsaet, Georges (Brüssel)
[German version] I. Introduction The outstanding historical and cultural significance which has been attached to horses since the 2nd millennium BC - first to pull  war chariots, later primarily for riding - in the area of the ancient Orient and Graeco-Roman antiquity has meant that archaeologists in the last 100 years have focused on the (esp. early) history of the exploitation of this domestic animal far more than on that of all the others. Scientific discussion in the first half of the 20th cent.…

Mirā

(1,453 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] I. Geographische Lage, Grenzen M. (hethit. auch Merā-) ist der Name des Kernlandes des seit dem 16. Jh.v.Chr. v.a. durch die hethit. Überl. (Hethitisch) greifbaren, bedeutenden westkleinasiatischen luw.-sprachigen (Luwisch) Staates Arzawa sowie des ca. 1315 v.Chr. daraus gebildeten hethit. Vasallenstaates. Dieser stieg E. des 13. Jh. zum Großkönigtum auf und überlebte möglicherweise den Zusammenbruch des hethit. Großreiches (kurz nach 1200 v.Chr.; s. Ḫattusa II.). Der westl. Teil von M., mit der arzawischen Hauptstadt Abasa/Ephesos, umfaßte…

Lydisch

(457 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] Die zu den anatolischen Sprachen gehörende, in einer eigenen, teils links-, teils rechtsläufigen Alphabetschrift (Kleinasien V., mit Karte) überl. Sprache der Lyder. Bekannt sind bis h. ca. 100 Inschr. (einschließlich einiger Graffiti, Siegel- und Mz.-Aufschriften), von denen die Mehrzahl, darunter zwei lyd.-griech. und zwei lyd.-aram. Bilinguen, aus dem 5.-4./3. Jh.v.Chr. stammt, während die Graffiti und Mz. z.T. älter sind (ab E. 8./Anf. 7. Jh.). Haupt-FO ist Sardeis; weitere F…

Staatsvertrag

(2,014 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter | Neumann, Hans | Starke, Frank | Beck, Hans
[English version] I. Allgemein S. sind offizielle, (völker)rechtlich verbindliche Vereinbarungen zw. zwei oder mehr Völkerrechtssubjekten, die den jeweiligen Personalverband als Ganzes binden. Sie werden in mündlicher oder schriftlicher Form stipuliert, sind uni-, bi- oder multilateral stilisiert und implizieren stets die völkerrechtliche Anerkennung des Partners. S. resultieren oft aus Präliminarverhandlungen, bedürfen der Ratifizierung durch den “Souverän” bzw. das zuständige Verfassungsorgan (Vol…

Miletos

(2,933 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | von Graeve, Volkmar (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μίλητος). [English version] [1] myth. Gründer der Stadt Milet Myth. Gründer der Stadt M. [2]; aus Kreta; Sohn des Apollon und der Areia, der Tochter des Kleochos, dessen Grab im Heiligtum von Didyma war [1. 165f.] (Apollod. 3,5f.), oder des Apollon und der Deione (Ov. met. 9,443ff.) oder des Apollon und der Minostochter Akakallis (Antoninus Liberalis 30). Minos verliebt sich in M., dieser flieht nach Karien, gründet dort M. [2] und heiratet Eidothea, woraus die Kinder Byblis und Kaunos [1] hervorgehen. Nach Ephoros FGrH 70 F 127 wurde Milet von Sarpedon gegründet. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bi…

Ḫattusa

(2,891 words)

Author(s): Seeher, Jürgen (Istanbul) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine | Kleinasien | Kleinasien | Mesopotamien | Schrift [English version] I. Stadt, archäologisch Hauptstadt der Hethiter in Zentralkleinasien bei Boğazkale (früher Boğazköy), Prov. Çorum, ca. 150 km östl. von Ankara/Türkei. Sporadisch seit dem Chalkolithikum (6. Jt. v.Chr.) besiedelt, war Ḫ. im 19./18. Jh. v.Chr. Standort einer assyr. Handelskolonie ( kārum; Kaneš) neben einer einheimischen hattischen Siedlung. Um 1700 v.Chr. wurde die Stadt zerstört; seit Ḫattusili I. (um 1600 v.Chr.) war …

Kleinasien

(13,916 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich (Tübingen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[English version] I. Name Als Einheit wird die Halbinsel K. westl. vom Tauros erstmals von Strabon (2,5,24; 12,1,3; vgl. Plin. nat. 5,27f.; Ptol. 5,2) Asia im engeren Sinn gen., im Gegensatz zum Erdteil Asia. Asia minor begegnet in dieser Bed. erstmals bei Oros. 1,2,26 (Anf. 5. Jh.n.Chr.). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [English version] II. Geographie Der westlichste Teil des asiat. Kontinents zw. 36° und 42° nördl. Br, zw. 26° und 44° östl. L, zw. Ägäis und Euphrates (ca. 1200 km), zw. dem Schwarzen Meer und dem Mittelmeer (ca. 600 km); K. ist im…
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