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Hegetorides

(64 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἡγητορίδης; Hēgētorídēs). Respected citizen of Cos. The story of his daughter who was abducted by the Persians and who, as a suppliant, is said to have been freed by the Spartan ruler  Pausanias after the battle of Plataeae (479 BC), is one of Herodotus' examples of the moral superiority of the Greeks (Hdt. 9,76; cf. Paus. 3,4,9). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Mnesiphilus

(128 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Μνησίφιλος/ Mnēsíphilos). Athenian from the deme of Phrearrii. Immediately before the battle of Salamis (480 BC), he advised Themistocles to assert his influence with the allies in order to prevent their planned retreat to the Isthmus. Later writers generally regarded M. as a teacher of practical wisdom in the tradition of Solon and as an adviser and friend of Themistocles (Plut. Themistocles 2,6; Plut. Mor. 795c). 14 ostraka from the Kerameikos show that in 487/6 BC M. was nominated for ostrakophoria (see ostrakismós ). Whether he himself wa…

Philaidae

(447 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Φιλαΐδαι; Philaïdai). [German version] [1] Attican deme P. was an Attic mesogeia deme of the Aigeis phyle with three bouleutaí on the east coast of Attica. The shrine of Artemis at Brauron was on its territory. Peisistratus [4] came from P. (Pl. Hipparch. 228b; Plut. Solon 10,2). It is unsubstantiated that Cleisthenes [2] did not therefore name the deme Brauron [4. 11 with fn. 30, 24 with fn. 83]. The location of the deme centre of P. to the west of the early Christian basilica of Brauron [1. 41; 2. 127] is hypothetical [3. 56]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Traill, Attica, 41, 6…

Myronides

(300 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Μυρωνίδης; Myrōnídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 479/478 BC Athenian, member of the legation that went to Sparta in 480/479 BC to demand the immediate departure of the Peloponnesian army. In 479/478 M., as one of the strategoi led the contingent at  Plataeae (Plut. Aristeides 10,10; 20,1). Nothing is known about the lineage of M. However, the fact that he was part of the legation of 480/479 and that eleven ostraka with his name were found at the Kerameikos would indicate that he had already enjoyed great personal prestige and political influence earlier on. Persian Wars Ste…

Antiphemus

(134 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀντίφημος; Antíphēmos). Rhodian from Lindus; in 688 BC founded the town of  Gela in Sicily after first consulting the oracle of Delphi. Herodotus (7,153) says an ancestor of a later tyrant,  Gelon, was involved, while Thucydides names Entimus of Crete as a further leader of the colonists. The stronghold was called first Lindioi and then Gela, from the river at the mouth of which it stood, and there Doric customs held sway (Thuc. 6,4,3). Even though several towns may have sent out …

Strattis

(244 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Στράττις/ Stráttis). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Chios, 6th cent. BC Tyrant of Chios, who took part in the Scythian campaign in 513 BC as an adviser of Darius [1] (Hdt. 4,138). It can not be determined whether he was deposed at the beginning of the Ionian Revolt. Nevertheless, he was able to resume his reign after the Persians' victory (in 493/2 BC). In 479 he was able to elude a conspiracy (Hdt. 8,132). At the liberation of Ionia after the battle of Mycale in 479 S. may also have been toppled. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 5th/4th cents. BC Attic comi…

Aleuadae

(213 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀλευάδαι; Aleuádai). Aristocratic family from Thessaly, which ruled in  Larissa and surrounding areas. Aleuas ‘the Red’ is supposed to have created the military and political order of the Thessalian federation (Aristot. fragment 497 Rose; Plut. Mor. 492A-B). Numerous A. held the tageia, the highest office of this federation. According to Herodotus (7,6; 130; 9,58) they approached Xerxes before the Persian Wars in order to cause his invasion of Greece; a few even joined the Persian army. From 404 BC the political develop…

Agariste

(126 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Ἀγαρίστη; Agarístē). [German version] [1] Mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens (6th cent. BC) Daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, wife of the Alcmaeonid  Megacles, mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens. The story of the long courtship before her marriage around 575 BC can be regarded as the paradigmatic depiction of the lifestyle of the archaic aristocracy (Hdt. 6,126 ff.).  Aristocracy Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography E. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Adelskultur und Polisges., 1989, 117-119. [German version] [2] Athenian, mother of Pericles Athenian, great-grandda…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Ietragoras

(51 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἰητραγόρας/ Iētragóras, Ἰητραγόρης/ Iētragórēs) of Miletus, was assigned by the rebellious Ionians in 499 BC with waylaying the Persian fleet returning from Naxos and capturing the pro-Persian tyrants on the ships (Hdt. 5,36f.). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography U. Walter, Herodot und die Ursachen des Ionischen Aufstandes, in: Historia 42, 1993, 257-278.

Hermodorus

(407 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἑρμόδωρος; Hermódōros). [German version] [1] Critic of his fellow citizens in a fragment of Heraclitus In a fragment of the philosopher  Heraclitus [1] of Ephesus, the latter criticizes his fellow citizens because they had banished H., the ‘most estimable man’ among them, with the justification that among them ‘no one should be the most estimable’ (Diels/Kranz 22,121 = Str. 14,1,25; Cic. Tusc. 5,105). According to later tradition, H., who went into exile in Italy, was involved in the drawing up of the Twelve …

Damasias

(111 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Δαμασίας; Damasías). Athenian archon in 582/1 BC. He succeeded in remaining in office for longer than the usual term of a year. Only after a further 14 months could he be driven out of office by violent means. For the remainder of his period in office in 580/79 it is said that a working party of ten archons ruled, five of whom are said to have belonged to the eupatrídai, three to the agroikoí and two to the dēmiourgoí (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 13,2). It is disputed whether the assumption of this ‘archontate compromise’ is historically correct. Traill, PAA 300925.  Archontate Stein-Hö…

Panaetius

(1,380 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Παναίτιος; Panaítios). [German version] [1] Sicilian tyrant, about 700 BC P. of Leontini, established the first known tyrannis in Sicily around 700 BC. P. overthrew the ruling oligarchy, probably by inciting the people (Aristot. pol. 5,10,1310b 29; 5,12,1316a 37; Polyaen. 5,47). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 129; 593  T. J. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks, 1948, 66-68  N. Luraghi, Tirannidi archaiche in Sicilia e Magna Grecia, 1994, 11-20. [German version] [2] Trierarch at Salamis In 480, at the battle of Salamis, P. …

Abrotonon

(47 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] Traditionally, A. is given among others as the name of the mother of  Themistocles (Plut. Themistocles 1, cf. Ath. 13,576). Her Thracian origins were supposedly the reason that Themistocles was not a full citizen.  Themistocles Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography F. J. Frost, Plutarch's Themistocles, 1980, 61-63.

Pytheas

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πυθέας; Pythéas). [German version] [1] P. from Aegina 5th cent. BC, his son proposed revenge measures after the battle of Plataeae After the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) his son Lampon [1] proposed desecrating the corpse of  Mardonius [1] in revenge for Leonidas [1]  (Hdt. 9,78). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. from Aegina Persian POW after a battle at Sciathos, freed after Salamis Fought so bravely in a skirmish at Sciathos that he inspired wonder in the victorious Persians, who consequently treated him with the greatest respect a…

Bacchiadae

(530 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Βακχιάδαι; Bakchiádai). Exclusive aristocratic group which ruled over  Corinth from the middle of the 8th cent. BC. The B. derived from the Corinthian King Bacchis and followed their family tree back to  Heracles. 200 families belonged to the group (Diod. Sic. 7,9,6). They were a closed group for members by birthright only and maintained their exclusive status through endogamy (Hdt. 5,92). This practice distinguished them from the general aristocratic ruler classes of other poleis…

Lysimachus

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Λυσίμαχος; Lysímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 5th cent. BC Athenian, son of Aristides [1], born around 480 BC, is a dialogue partner in Plato's Láchēs (178ff.), where he is represented as the prototype of the unsuccessful son of a celebrated father. A decree mentioned by Demosthenes (20,115; cf. Plut. Aristides 27), according to which L. is said to have been granted support from the state because he was penniless after the death of his father, is probably a construction from the 4th cent. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 1695 III-IV. [German version] [2] G…

Daiphantus

(74 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Δαίφαντος; Daíphantos). Son of Bathyllios from Hyampolis. D. was one of the commanders of the Phocians in the clashes with the Thessalians shortly before the Persian Wars (Hdt. 8,27-31). The brilliant victory won by the Phocian army in these battles was still being commemorated in the home town of D. at the annual festival of the Elaphebolia in the time of Plutarch (Plut. Mor. 244B-C).  Elaphebolos;  Hyampolis Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Alcmaeonid curse

(79 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] The killing of the supporters of the aspiring tyrant  Cylon in the sanctuary of Athena Polias around 630 BC was regarded as a religious outrage. The family of the responsible archon, that of the Alcmaeonid  Megacles, was punished with banishment (Hdt. 5,71; Thuc. 1,126). The sacrilege was repeatedly put forward until the time of  Pericles in order to harm the influential  Alcmaeonidas (Thuc. 1,127; 2,13); Davies 9688. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography K.-W. Welwei, Athen, 1992, 133 ff.

Callimachus

(3,899 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lehnus, Luigi (Milan) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Καλλίμαχος; Kallímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 490 BC archon and supreme commander at Marathon Athenian, árchōn polémarchos ( Archontes) in 490 BC, supreme commander at  Marathon (490 BC). It is disputed if C. was appointed polémarchos by lot (Hdt. 6,109). Aristotle's claim (Ath. Pol. 22,5) that the archontes were first selected by lot in 487/86 appears preferable. But perhaps areas of responsibility were already distributed among them by lot after 509/8. C. only nominally held supreme command, but he was a voting mem…
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