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Vopiscus

(74 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Uncommon Roman praenomen (in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 9,37,1 Οὐοπῖσκος/ Ouopîskos) to be found in V. Iulius ( cos. in 473 BC). According to ancient evidence, vopīscus is a term for a child whose twin is stillborn. The etymology of the term is disputed. As a cognomen, it appears in one of the alleged authors of the Historia Augusta , Flavius V. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 59-60; 141; 275  Walde/Hofmann 2, 835.

Indo-Europeans

(1,054 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] A. Definition, general, methods I. refers to both the carriers of individual  Indo-European languages and those of reconstructed proto-Indo-European (proto-Indo-European basic language) or for instance of proto-Greek. The proof provided at the beginning of the 19th cent. of the linguistic affinity has given rise to the question who the speakers of the basic language were. With this new concept, the postulate was introduced into prehistory that a people with a characteristic culture sh…

Volusus

(87 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] (also Volesus). Uncommon Latin praenomen , probably adopted from an ancient tradition without rhotacism. Etymologically, it is related, with ablaut, to the root of val-ēre 'to be strong and healthy' and to the nomen gentile Valerius . Secondarily as a cognomen in L. Valerius Messalla V. ( cos. in AD 5; Valerius [II 22]). A V. is considered the ancestor of the Valerii (Valerius [I 10]). The nomina gentilia Volus(i)enus and Volusius are derived from the praenomen. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 61; 322  Walde/Hofmann 2, 727.

Centum languages

(221 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] The mnemonic Centum (from Latin centum) stands for those Indo-Germanic languages in which there is coincidence between the palatal series , , g̑h and the unaccented k, g, gh series of the Old Indo-Germanic tectals ( Gutturals) and the unaccented series: Old Indo-Germanic * kreuh2- ‘bloody flesh’ > Latin cruor, Greek kréas, * k̑ṛd- ‘heart’ > Latin cor, Greek kardía. Otherwise (in so-called  Satem languages) the palatals preserved as independent phonemes become sibilants. In Centum the labio-velars kw , gw , gwh (initially) remain preserved as phonemes, e.g…

Laryngeal

(464 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Technical term in modern linguistics (hybrid Lat. derivation from Greek lárynx ‘larynx’) for a class of consonants. In current Indo-European (IE) linguistics, it refers to (three) phonemes postulated in the reconstruction of the proto-language. Despite doubts as to their nature as sounds actually produced in the larynx, the term is still in use as the phonetic determination of said sounds remains controversial. Provisionally, they are designated by indices: h1 - 3 ( 1 - 3 ). These three consonants complete the Neogrammarian system of phonemes, which in …

Ancient European

(372 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] A. Definition Technical term established by the Indo-Germanist H. Krahe (1898-1965), with which he postulates a language that follows from proto-Indo-Germanic, a relatively unified stage that is a preliminary stage of the languages documented in historical times in the European region. These include Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, Latino-Faliscan, Osco-Umbrian, Venetian and Illyrian. He postulates this stage of language and its original area of dispersion based on water names (‘ancient Eu…

Volero

(46 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] A 'lost' Roman praenomen without siglum, in Degrassi, FCap., recorded in 37 for the consular tribune of 399 BC, Volero Publilius [I 2] P.f. Voler. n. Philo. Etymologically it is an n-stem extension of Volusus / Volesus. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 59; 169 f.; 190.

Satem languages

(242 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] In phonetics and phonology, the term satem (Avest. satəm, ‘hundred’) is employed to characterize those Indo-European languages which - unlike centum languages - preserve the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) series of palatal stops , , g̑h as independent phonemes. The change of palatal tectals (Gutturals) into affricates (such as č, ć) or fricatives is a common phenomenon in the history of languages. Not all languages did necessarily take the same path in the development from PIE * k̑ṃtó- to Avestan satəm, Sanskrit śatám, Lithuanian šim̃tas or Old Church Slavonic sto. …

Word formation

(821 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] I. General The vocabulary (Lexicon) of a language is an open inventory which is or can be constantly expanded through the adoption of elements from other languages (loan words) or by the creation of words with the means of the language itself. Linguistic creativity is most clearly revealed in the adoption and creation of new items of vocabulary. Since speakers seldom reflect on the 'onomasiological' or content elements of the lexicon, their attention is probably first caught by form…

Tullus

(75 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Rare Latin praenomen , which became unusual even before the introduction of sigla. There is no assured etymology. The best-known bearer was the third king of Rome, Tullus Hostilius [4] in the 7th cent. BC. Tullius, the nomen gentile derived from it, is first encountered with the sixth king Servius Tullius [I 4]. Of later bearers the best known is M. Tullius Cicero. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 58 f.; 186  Walde/Hofmann 2, 714.

Gutturals

(254 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] The Neo-Latin terminus technicus gutturals (‘guttural sounds’) for a class of consonants is traditional (nouns that before the endings have a g, k/c or χ are called guttural stems). Today research prefers the more appropriate term ‘Tectals’, as in the articulation of this consonant the back of the tongue is pressed against the roof of the mouth (Latin tectum) in order to obstruct the stream of air through constriction or blockage, so producing the sound typical of gutturals. To the proto-Indo-European are attributed nine or ten tectal ph…

Septimus

(88 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Must be a former Roman individual name (see below) which in the classical period no longer appears as a praenomen. Etymologically, it corresponds to the Latin ordinal septimus, 'the seventh' (cf. Quintus, Sextus). A synonymous name exists in Umbrian (old-Umbrian nom. Se(f)tums). The (neo)-Umbrian vocative evolved, with phonetic and graphic variations, into the Etruscan Sehtume (genitive Sehtumna). The common genitive Septumius/ Septimius is a regular derivation from the older Latin * Septumos. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 111-114…

Orthography

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] A. General (CT) This article covers only phenomena appertaining to alphabetic scripts (an example of a syllabic script would be the Mycenaean). Shorthand scripts are also excluded; although the standardization of abbreviations certainly falls within the scope of orthography. The word ὀρθογραφία, 'correct spelling; spelling according to accepted usage', is attested since the 2nd cent. BC (cf. the grammarian Tryphon). Since Antiquity, orthography has signif…

Kentumsprache

(199 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] Das Merkwort K. (nach lat. centum) steht für solche idg. Sprachen, in denen von den uridg. Tektalen (Gutturale) die palatale Reihe , , g̑h und die unmarkierte k, g, gh in der unmarkierten zusammengefallen sind: uridg. * kreuh2- “blutiges Fleisch” > lat. cruor, griech. kréas, * k̑ṛd- “Herz” > lat. cor, griech. kardía. Sonst (in sog. Satemsprachen) werden die als eigenständige Phoneme erh. Palatale zu Zischlauten. In K. blieben die Labiovelare kw , gw , gwh (anfänglich) als Phoneme erh., z.B. im Urgriech. und Mykenischen mit der geringen Einbuße * kw > k neben u. Die fr…

Gutturale

(220 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] Der nlat. terminus technicus G. (“Kehllaute”) für eine Konsonantenklasse ist traditionell (Nomina, die vor den Endungen ein g, k/c oder χ haben, heißen Gutturalstämme). Heute bevorzugt die Forsch. den angemesseneren Begriff “Tektale”, da bei der Hervorbringung dieser Kons. der Zungenrücken gegen das Munddach (lat. tectum) gedrückt wird, um den Luftstrom durch Enge bzw. Verschluß zu hindern, wodurch das für G. typische Geräusch erzeugt wird. Dem Uridg. spricht man neun oder zehn tektale Phoneme zu. Die g. Verschlußlaute ver…

Indogermanen

(908 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] A. Definition, Allgemeines, Methoden Mit I. meint man sowohl die Träger einzelner indogermanischer Sprachen als auch die des rekonstruierten Uridg. (uridg. Grundsprache) oder etwa des Urgriech. Der zu Beginn des 19. Jh. erbrachte Nachweis der sprachlichen Verwandtschaft hat die Frage nach den Sprechern der Grundsprache aufkommen lassen. In die Vorgesch. wurde mit diesem neuen Begriff das Postulat eingeführt, daß ein Volk mit einer charakteristischen Kultur zu suchen sei. Doch hängt d…

Alteuropäisch

(332 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] A. Definition Von dem Indogermanisten H. Krahe (1898-1965) etablierter t.t., mit dem er ein auf das Uridg. folgendes, relativ einheitliches Stadium als Vorstufe der im europ. Raum in histor. Zeit bezeugten Sprachen Kelt., German., Baltisch, Latinofaliskisch, Oskoumbrisch, Venetisch und Illyr. postuliert. Diese Sprachstufe und ihr urspr. Verbreitungsgebiet erschließt er aus Gewässernamen (“a. Hydronymie”), die ungefähr im 2. Jt. v. Chr. entstanden sein sollen. Als Folge des Vordring…

Laryngal

(424 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] Moderner sprachwiss. t.t. (hybride lat. Ableitung von griech. lárynx “Kehlkopf”) für eine Klasse von Kons. In der h. Indogermanistik bezeichnet man damit (drei) bei der Rekonstruktion der Grundsprache postulierte Phoneme. Trotz Zweifel an ihrer Natur als Kehlkopflaute hält sich der Begriff, weil die phonetische Bestimmung besagter Laute in der wiss. Diskussion strittig bleibt. Sie werden behelfsmäßig durch Indizes notiert: h1 - 3 ( 1 - 3 ). Diese drei Kons., L., vervollständigen das junggrammatische Phonemsystem, welches dafür nur ein “Schwa (…

Spurius

(359 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Latin praenomen Latin praenomen, customary initial abbreviation originally S., then, as it became rarer, from c. 100 BC, Sp. The rare nomen gentile, Spurilius, is derived from its diminutive form, of which no record survives. Some evidence also survives from the Italic languages, e.g. Oscan Spuriis (the personal name identical to the nomen gentile). The vocative formed the basis for the Etruscan personal name Spurie, attested from the 7th cent. BC on. The Etruscan nomen gentile Spurie/ana- was absorbed into Latin in its later pronunciation as Spurinna…

Publius

(129 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Common Roman praenomen , abbreviated by the siglum P.; earliest evidence Poplio- (CIL I2 4, 2832a; c. 500 BC; Lapis Satricanus), thereafter Greek Πόπλιος ( Póplios). The name is etymologically linked to populus (‘army’ > ‘people’). A derivation from Etruscan must be rejected since the rare Etruscan word Puplie was inherited from an Italic language. The shift of poplico- to pūblico- (following pūbēs) was also adopted for the praenomen and its derivative Pūblīlius, the nomen gentile. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Tragedian Tragedian of Rome who wrote in Gr…
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