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Candragomin

(2,342 words)

Author(s): Steiner, Roland
Candragomin, the author of the Buddhist drama Lokānanda (Joy for the World) and the epistle Śiṣyalekha (Letter to a Disciple), is probably identical with the grammarian of the same name (BEB I: Dramatic Works: South Asia, 579; against this: Oberlies, 1989, 17–20; 1996, 266n2) who lived in the mid-5th-century CE (Oberlies, 1989, 12f.; Steiner, 1997, 32n4). According to the late 7th-century CE report of the Chinese pilgrim Yijing (義淨; 635–713), the playwright and Śiṣyalekha author Candra (Yueguan [月官]) was still (c. 673) alive in Eastern India (T. 2125 [LIV] 228a9 ff.,…

Haribhaṭṭa

(1,325 words)

Author(s): Steiner, Roland
Haribhaṭṭa is an Indian Buddhist poet who, in succession of Āryaśūra, has written a further Jātakamālā (Garland of narratives related to former births of the Buddha); up to now, no other works under his name are known to be extant in Sanskrit, Tibetan or Chinese. Since he praises the “teacher Śūra” ( ācāryaśūra) as a composer of jātakas in the second introductory stanza of his Jātakamālā (ed. & trans. Hahn, 2011, 3–5), he must have lived contemporary with or later than this author. Haribhaṭṭa’s upper limit is established by the fact that a series of six stanzas from the opening story ( Prabhāsaj…

Āryaśūra

(1,868 words)

Author(s): Steiner, Roland
Āryaśūra, the author of a Jātakamālā (Garland of narratives related to former births of the Buddha), is an Indian Buddhist poet who must have lived by the beginning of the 5th century CE at the latest, but possibly earlier. The upper limit of his lifetime results from the date of his literary successor Haribhaṭṭa (not later than the first half of the 5th cent.) who, in the second introductory stanza of his own Jātakamālā, praises the “teacher Śūra” ( ācāryaśūra) as a composer of jātakas (Hahn, 2011, 3–5). According to Hahn, “[t]he difference in style between Āryaśūra’s and Hari…

Gopadatta

(1,217 words)

Author(s): Steiner, Roland
Gopadatta is an Indian Buddhist poet, author of a collection of narratives belonging to the Jātakamālā genre. We know this because Somendra, the son of Kṣemendra, names a “teacher Gopadatta” ( ācāryagopadatta) in the epilogue to his father’s work, Bodhisattvāvadānakalpalatā (composed in 1051 CE). There, Gopadatta is mentioned among the authors of Jinajātakamālikās (Garlands of narratives related to former births of the Victor [i.e. the Buddha]) which are composed “in elaborate prose […] interspersed with verse” (trans. Speyer, 1895, xxii; see Str…

Poesie

(9,205 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[English Version] I. Bibel und antikes Judentum 1.Altes Testament a) AllgemeinP. (griech. ποι´ησις/poi´ēsis) bez. in den bibl. Wiss., im Unterschied zur Prosa, i. allg. Texte in vers-, rhythmus- und klanggebundener Sprache, deren Struktur und Stil von sprachlichen (Klangformen; Reime; Satzfolgen u.a.) wie auch außersprachlichen Faktoren (Musik; Umfang; Gleichbau; Szenerie u.a. Modifikationen, sog. constraints) bestimmt sind. Althebr. Begriffe sind nicht überliefert, obwohl die P. einen beträchtlichen An…

Poetry

(9,931 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible and Ancient Judaism 1. Old Testament a. General. In biblical studies, poetry (Gk ποίησις/ poíēsis) in contrast to prose generally comprises stanzaic texts in language employing patterns of rhythm and sound, whose structure and style are determined by both linguistic (sound patters, rhyme, clause sequences, etc.) and nonlinguistic factors (so-called constraints: music, ¶ extent, parallel structure, setting, etc.). We do not know the ancient Hebrew poetic terminology, although poetry constitutes a significant portion of Old …