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Chalcidian vase paint­ing

(471 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Important type of 6th-cent. BC black-figured vase, named for the appended mythological names in the Chalcidian alphabet; none of the painters or potters is known [1. 2f.; 2. 181ff.]. Rumpf and others placed Chalcidian vase painting (CVP) on Euboea, whereas today Rhegium is favoured [1; 2. 15ff.; 3. passim]. The question must, however, remain open, especially as some of the Chalcidian vases bear trademarks otherwise found only on vases not manufactured in Italy [1. 53]. The genre begins c. 560 BC with no discernible precursors, and already comes to an end c. 510 BC. …

Laconian vase painting

(487 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] In Sparta, painted ceramics were produced for export as early as the 7th cent. BC. Initially associated with Cyrene, one of the first places where Laconian vase paintings (LVP) were found, the origin of LVP was secured with the excavation of the Artemis Orthia Sanctuary in Sparta. Dating for LVP, which is considered to have reached its peak c. between 575 and 525 BC, is primarily derived from groups of findings in Tarentum and Tocra [3. 8-9]; the representation of Arcesilaus [2] II, which was probably created during his reign [3. 195; 1…

Arcesilas Painter

(124 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Laconian vase painter c. 560 BC, named after the bowl with an image of king Arcesilaus I or Arcesilaus [2] II of Cyrene ( Laconian vase painting; Paris, CM): The king, seated under a tarpaulin, supervises the weighing and storing of silphion; the workers involved in this task have names indicating their functions. The extraordinary picture is populated by numerous African animals. The Arcesilas Painter, who mainly painted on bowls, prefers symposium pictures and myths (Hercules/Amazons, Atlas and Prometheus). He impresses by his precise and lively art of drawing. Ste…

Chigi Painter

(243 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Late proto-Corinthian vase painter from c. 640 BC, named for the exceptional vase in Rome (VG, formerly Chigi collection; the term Chigi Painter (CP) has displaced ‘Macmillan Painter’ in archaeological terminology). The Chigi Vase is the earliest and most richly painted Corinthian olpe, with a volute handle. Separated by black bands picked out in light colours (decorative motifs, a hare hunt), three polychrome friezes follow one below the other: a battle, with the oldest representation of a hoplite phalanx; then adjacent …

Caeretan hydriae

(515 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] A collection of hydriae (about 40 have been documented to date), dating from 530-510 BC, from a workshop which was presumably located in Caere, the main finding place; the term Caeretan hydriae (CH) was coined by C. Humann and O. Puchstein [1. 198]. After they were for many years considered to be of Etruscan or Corinthian origin, they are now regarded as the work of immigrant eastern Greek master potters, a view supported by Ionian signatures [1. 46f., no. 30]. CH are wide vessels…

Timonidas

(127 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] (Τιμονίδας/ Timonídas). Significant painter of polychrome Corinthian pottery (Corinthian vases), c. 580 BC, of whose work a clay bottle and a clay tablet survive. Both have a painter signature, which is rare in Corinth; the clay tablet furthermore has the father's name, Bias. On the clay bottle, Achilles is lying in wait for Troilus; in addition to Polyxene and Priam there are other Trojans with name labels (Athens, NM 277; from Cleonae). One side of the fragmentary clay tablet shows a hunte…

Dodwell Painter

(133 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Middle Corinthian vase-painter from around 580/570 BC, who specialized in pyxides and oinochoai but also painted neck-amphoras and hydriai; generally with friezes of animals and riders. The pyxis in Munich (SA, so-called Dodwell Pyxis) with the Calydonian boar hunt and other mythical figures (the accompanying names are partly incorrect) is outstanding, as are also two careful friezes on the olpe in Rome (VG): revellers dancing around a krater, and Hercules fighting the Hydra. In o…

Tydeus Painter

(118 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Significant painter of Corinthian vases, who c. 560 BC primarily made amphorae, kraters, lekythoi and oinochoai; scholarship has not so far been quite successful in distinguishing the TP from stylistically related painters. His most important work can be found on red-ground neck amphorae, such as the eponymous Killing of Ismene by Tydeus [1] (Paris, LV E 640). Apart from a battle between Theseus and the Minotaur (amphora Paris, LV E 651) the TP primarily shows battles, horsemen, komasts …

Cavalcade Painter

(148 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Main master of the ‘Gorgoneion group’ active around 580 BC, a group of painters involved in  Corinthian vase painting who mainly decorated bowls and kraters; they are named after a frequent motif of the pictures inside the bowls. The outside of bowls painted by the Cavalcade Painter (CP) mostly show friezes with horsemen (hence the name), battle scenes and animal friezes; one example showing the ‘suicide of Ajax’ rich with inscriptions of names (Basle, AM, BS 1404). The kraters sh…

Amphiaraus Crater

(147 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Late Corinthian colonnette crater of red base colour ( Corinthian vases; around 560 BC, now missing), main work of the Amphiaraus Painter. Face: above a frieze of horsemen, the departure of  Amphiaraus; reverse: above a battle scene frieze, his participation in the funeral games for Pelias (chariot races); under a handle, a wrestling bout. In the colourful, very detailed picture on the face, Amphiaraus steps into the chariot casting a threating look towards  Eriphyle, who as the o…

Eurytius Crater

(132 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Early Corinthian columned crater of c. 600 BC from Cerveteri (Paris, LV), in which new figurative and decorative forms are combined with the highest-quality illustrations in the black-figured style and polychrome line-drawings. Obverse: the only Corinthian example of the feast given by  Eurytus [1] for  Heracles (copious name-labels); reverse: battle (outside Troy?). Below the handles a novel ‘kitchen scene’ and an early depiction of the suicide of Ajax. In addition, friezes of herons and animals and a deer hunt. Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) Bibliography Amyx,…

Paris Painter

(160 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Important master of Pontic vase painting (Pontic vases) of Etruria who in the 3rd quarter of the 6th cent. BC painted mainly neck amphoras but also hydriai, oinochoi and plates. The neck amphora that gives its name to the art form, with its splendidly colourful Judgement of Paris (cf. Paris), is among the most important works of Etrurian black-figured vase painting (Vase painting, black-figured)(Munich, SA 837). Aside from additional significant mythical paintings (above all the b…

Pontic vases

(405 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] The use of the term PV for the Etruscan black-figured vases of the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC goes back to F. Dümmler, who, starting from a representation of mounted Scythian archers, erroneously associated this important genre with the Black-Sea area (amphora Rome, MV 231; cf. Hdt. 7,64). On the basis of their style and their sole finding site Etruria, the ca. 200 PV have been identified as Etruscan ones; there are no inscriptions whatsoever. PV are modelled on Attic black-figu…

Astarita Crater

(152 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Late Corinthian crater with red background from c. 560 BC ( Corinthian vase-painting; Vatican, from the Astarita collection). Above an animal frieze, the singular depiction of the demand for the return of Helen by Menelaus, Odysseus and Talthybius in Troy: Theano the priestess of Athena, followed by women and a train of riders, approaches the heroes, who are seated on a step (the design continues on the reverse; the numerous name captions sometimes fail to match). The episode is related …

Thericles

(84 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] (Θηρικλῆς; Thēriklês). Corinthian potter, fullest discussion. in Ath. 11,470e-472e. At the time of Aristophanes [3] ( c. 455-385 BC) T. is supposed to have made in clay a cup shape with a glossy black surface, also imitated in other materials (Theophr. H. plant. 5,3,2) and much praised in ancient literature; the term 'Thericlean' ( thēríkleios) was later used for other pot shapes as well. Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) Bibliography A. Blair Brownlee, Antimenean Dinoi, in: J. H. Oakley et al. (eds.), Athenian Potters and Painters, 1997, 517.

Gamedes

(142 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Boeotian potter, active around the middle of the 6th cent. BC, who twice signed a jug now in Paris (LV, inventory no. MNB 501): ΓΑΜΕΔΕΣ ΕΠΟΕΣΕ ( GAMEDES EPOESE). The clover-leaf jug, with its conical body and knurled rim and its high neck divided by a sharply ridged ring design, can be linked to the shape of other Boeotian jugs. The signatures of G. and Polon are the only ones preserved in Boeotian black-figured vase painting. Named after G. is the G.-painter, who painted the jug in the Louvre (shepherd with…

Pseudo-Chalcidian vases

(230 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] The black-figured PCV ( c. 70 in number) from the 6th cent. BC were brought together for the first time by A. Rumpf. The PCV closely emulate Chalcidian vase painting, but are also influenced by Corinthian vases and Attic black-figured vases (Vase painting, black-figured). The composition of the clay used for the vessels and an inscription in the Ionic alphabet [1. 155] also reveal dissimilarities with Chalcidian vases. Among the PCV one can differentiate between the Polyphemus group […

Tityus Painter

(129 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Etruscan Black-Figure vase painter, who painted more than 40 amphorai, jugs, kyathoi, bowls and plates in the third quarter of the 6th cent. BC, often exclusively with animal friezes. The TM is named after an amphora bearing the killing of Tityus by Apollo and Artemis (Paris, CM 171); his favourite theme, however, are the exploits of Heracles [1]. With his colourful pictures and his representation of figures mostly in motion, the TM is, after the Paris Painter who was a strong inf…

Inscription Painter

(167 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Leading master of early  Chalcidian vase painting, working around 560-540 BC, who painted chiefly amphorae, hydriae and craters. The Inscription Painter (IP) is named for his inscribing of names on his mythological images. Preferred among these are the legends of Troy [1. 118-140], then come Bellerophon [1. 114-117], Perseus [1. 113] or the combat between Zeus and Typhon [1. 84-85]; twice the combat between Hercules and Geryoneus is found [1. 90-96]. Besides myths (approximately t…

Corinthian vases

(893 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] A. General Painted ceramic wares of supra-regional importance were produced in  Corinth from the Late Geometric period. The high point of Corinthian vase-making, with exports to all regions of the ancient world related to trade and the foundation of Greek cities, was in the 7th and the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC. The technological basis for this success was the development of the regulated three-stage firing process by Corinthian potters. Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) [German version] B. Research Following the ground-breaking work of H. Payne, distinction…
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