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Kiev, Cave Monastery

(206 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] (Russ. Kievo Pečerskaja Lavra), the oldest monastery, theological and cultural center of Russia, and a place of pilgrimage until today. It was founded in 1051 by the hermit Antonij, who lived in a cave on the bank of the Dnieper. Due to the rapidly growing community of monks, the cave complex was considerably expanded. Their first abbot, Feodosy, extended the cave monastery above-ground and introduced the typikon of the Studios monastery, which spread from here and became accepted in…


(156 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] is the name of a heretical community; the name has been given various contradictory derivations. The community appeared at the beginning of the 11th century in Anatolia and spread to Constantinople, where it also had monastic members. It is sometimes ¶ conjectured that it arose from the remnants of the Paulicians. The Phundagiagites became known through a polemical circular letter sent c. 1050 by Euthymius from the Peribleptos monastery. As the single source, however tendentiously interpolated, it contains information ab…

Theophanes the Confessor, Saint

(81 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] (c. 765, Constantinople – Mar 12, 817/818, on Samothrace), Byzantine historian; founder and abbot of the Megas Agros monastery. Between 811 and 814, he extended the Chronography (Chronicles: I) of his friend George Syncellus to cover the period from 285 to 813. Because he defended iconoduly (Veneration of images: VI), Emperor Leo V banished him to Samothrace in 816. His feast day is Mar 12. Christian Stephan Bibliography R. Maisano, LMA VIII, 1997, 663f. (bibl.).

Theophanes III of Nicea

(147 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] metropolitan of Nicea (c. 1315 – c. 1380/1381). First mentioned as metropolitan in 1366, Theophanes resided in Constantinople, since Nicea was already in Turkish hands. He was an adherent of Gregory Palamas and a champion of Hesychasm, though without advocating the extreme positions of many Hesychasts. As a colleague of John VI Cantacuzenus, he edited John’s letters to the Latin patriarch Paul of Constantinople, in answer to Paul’s inquiries about Palamite theology. The eight sur…

Peter of Antioch

(162 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] (born in Antioch; died in Antioch, 1056). Trained in the administration at Constantinople, Peter initially held a position in the upper civil service in the province and at the imperial court. After entering the service of the church, he was appointed sceuophylax at Hagia Sophia. In 1052 Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos and Patriarch Michael Cerularius appointed him patriarch of Antioch. Concerned for the unity of the church, Peter took a mediating position in the church-politica…

Theophanes III.

(138 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[English Version] Theophanes III., Metropolit von Nicaea (um 1315 – ca.1380/81). 1366 erstmals in diesem Amt erwähnt, wirkte Th. in Konstantinopel, da Nicaea bereits türkisch besetzt war. Th. war Anhänger des Gregorios Palamas und ein Verfechter des Hesychasmus, ohne jedoch die extremen Positionen mancher Hesychasten zu vertreten. Als Mitarbeiter des Johannes VI. Kantakuzenos redigierte er dessen Briefe an den lat. Patriarchen Paulus von Konstantinopel, worin er dessen Anfragen zur palamitischen Theo…


(97 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[English Version] (Suda), Name der umfangreichsten byz. Enzyklopädie des 10.Jh. Das Werk vereinigt über 31 000 Lemmata, in denen Materialien aus unterschiedlichsten Quellen verarbeitet sind: lexikalische Werke, hist. Exzerpte, Biogr., Werke aus Theol. und Philos. und Texte klassisch griech. Autoren. Da die Kompilatoren alles Wissen ihrer Zeit aufzunehmen versuchten, stellt die S. eine einzigartige Sammlung z.T. auch verlorenen Materials dar. Christian Stephan Bibliography Quelle: Suidae Lexicon, hg. von A. Adler, 5 Bde., 1928–1938 Lit.: H. Hunger, Was nicht in der …


(397 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[English Version] von Konstantinopel (um 810 Konstantinopel – ca.893/94), Gelehrter und Patriarch von Konstantinopel 858–867 und 877–886. In einer Aristokratenfamilie aufgewachsen, genoß Ph. eine vorzügliche Ausbildung. Dank familiärer Verbindungen begann er 842 seine Karriere am kaiserlichen Hof. Als es 856 dem Caesar Bardas gelang, die Regentschaft an sich zu reißen, verbannte er 858 den Patriarchen Ignatios und setzte statt dessen Ph. ein, der als Laie in einem unkanonischen Schnellverfahren die…


(150 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[English Version] von Antiochien (geb. in Antiochien – 1056 ebd.). In Konstantinopel im Verwaltungsdienst ausgebildet, stand P. zunächst im höheren Staatsdienst in der Provinz und am kaiserlichen Hof. Nach Eintritt in den Kirchendienst wurde er Skeuophylax an der Hagia Sophia. 1052 ernannten ihn Kaiser Konstantinos IX. Monomachos und Patriarch Michael I. Kerullarios zum Patriarchen seiner Geburtsstadt. Besorgt um die Einheit der Kirche vertrat P. in den kirchenpolit. Kontroversen zw. Konstantinopel…


(150 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[English Version] . Bez. einer häretischen Sondergemeinschaft, deren Name verschiedene, sich widersprechende Ableitungen erfahren hat. Sie trat zu Beginn des 11.Jh. in Anatolien in Erscheinung und verbreitete sich bis nach Konstantinopel, wo sie auch im Mönchtum Anhänger fand. Daß sie aus Überresten der Paulikianer entstanden sei, wird gelegentlich erwogen. Bekannt wurden die Ph. durch ein polemisches Sendschreiben des Euthymios vom Peribleptoskloster um 1050. Als einzige, jedoch tendenziös interp…

Theophanes III.

(146 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[English Version] Theophanes III., Patriarch von Jerusalem (um 1570 Peloponnes – 15.12.1644 Konstantinopel). Sehr jung Mönch geworden, wurde Th. von seinem Onkel, Patriarch Sophronios IV., nach Jerusalem gerufen, wo er 1608 dessen Nachfolge antrat. Sein Pontifikat war von guten Beziehungen zur Orthodoxie in Rumänien und Rußland geprägt, ebenso von Kontakten zur ref. Kirche. Die Beziehungen zur kath. Kirche dagegen blieben gespannt: Auf einer Almosenreise durch Rußland und die Ukraine 1619–1621 kämpft…

Theophanes Homologetes

(75 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[English Version] (Confessor; um 765 Konstantinopel – 12.3.817/18 auf Samothrake), Heiliger, byz. Historiker und Abt des von ihm gegründeten Klosters Megas Agros. Zw. 811 und 814 setzte er die Weltchronik (Chroniken: I.) seines Freundes Georgios Synkellos für die Zeit von 285 bis 813 fort. Wegen seiner Verteidigung der Bilderverehrung (Bilderkult: VI.) wurde er 816 von Kaiser Leon V. nach Samothrake verbannt. Fest: 12.3. Christian Stephan Bibliography R. Maisano (LMA 8, 1997, 663f.) (Lit.).

Photius (Saint)

(439 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] (c. 810, Constantinople – c. 893/ 894), scholar, and patriarch of Constantinople 858–867 and 877–886. Photius grew up in an aristocratic family, and had an excellent education. Thanks to family contacts, he began his career in 842 at the imperial court. Caesar Bardas succeeded in seizing the regency in 856, and in 858 he banned Patriarch Ignatius and replaced him by Photius, who as a layman was ordained to the required level in an uncanonical fast-track process. Ignatius reacted b…

Theophanes of Jerusalem

(162 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] patriarch of Jerusalem (c. 1570, Peloponnesus – Dec 15, 1644, Constantino-¶ ple). Having become a monk at a very early age, Theophanes was called to Jerusalem by his uncle, Patriarch Sophronius IV, whom he succeeded in 1608. His pontificate was marked by friendly relations with Orthodoxy in Romania and Russia as well as contacts with the Reformed Church, whereas relationships with the Catholic Church remained tense: on an alms journey through Russia and the Ukraine between 1619 and 1621, he …


(177 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] (Gk κοντάκιον, κονδάκιον). Term for a genre, dating from the 6th century, of Byzantine hymns (IV). The kontakion consists of a series of metrically equal verses (so-called οἰκοι/ oíkoi), for whose rhythmic structure oikos I is normative as the model strophe ( hirmos). They are preceded by a prooimion, which differs metrically and concisely summarizes the festival content of the day. The individual strophes, linked together acrostically (Acrostic), close with a common refrain. As poetic homilies (Homily) that are rooted in the tradition of the Syrian poetic sermon ( ma…

Joseph of Thessalonica

(187 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] (c. 762, Constantinople – 832, in Thessalonian exile), saint. Joseph was the brother of Theodore of Studios, together with whom he became a monk in 781, after 799 in Studios monastery. As an advocate of monastic orthodoxy, he became involved in a lasting controversy with the imperial court in the Moichean dispute and, especially, in the iconoclastic controversy. Elevated as archbishop of Thessalonica in 807, he was deposed already in 809. In 811, he was able to return, but when Le…


(103 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] a massive Byzantine encyclopedia compiled in the 10th century. The work contains over 31,000 entries, which provide material from a very wide variety of sources: lexical works, historical excerpts, biographies, works of theology and philosophy, and texts of classical Greek authors. Since the compilers’ goal was to include all the knowledge of their age, the Suda represents a unique collection of material, some of which would otherwise have been lost. Christian Stephan Bibliography Source: A. Adler, ed., Suidae Lexicon, 5 vols., 1928–1938 Bibl.: H. Hunger, “Was …


(168 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] Menologies, Gk μηvολόγιον (sg.), is a term applied to the compilation of elaborate lives of saints, biblical as well as non-biblical readings of the Eastern Church, arranged according to the days of the month and the church year. Primarily intended for use in monasteries and private devotion, they were often illuminated (Illuminated manuscripts). Issuing from the martyrologies of the patristic period, the menologies significantly increased in scope at the time of the Iconoclastic Co…


(181 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian
[German Version] (Gk κάϑισμα) is the principle in the Eastern Church for arranging the Psalter (Psalms/Psalter: IV, 2), which is divided into 20 kathisma. A kathisma consists of nine psalms on average, and is divided, in turn, into three stáseis (στάσεις, also δόξαι/ dóxai or ἀντίϕωνα/ antíphōna) of three psalms each. Thanks to this kathisma-arrangement, the Psalter can be read once a week, one kathisma in the evening ( hesperinos) and two in the morning service ( othros), beginning on Saturday evening. During the major fast (Fasting: III, 3), the weekly reading is doubl…


(2,573 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Christian | Wittke, Anne-Maria | Gstrein, Heinz
[English Version] I. Allgemein Z., griech. Κυ´προς/»Kupferinsel«, Staat im östlichen Mittelmeer, der die gleichnamige Insel umfaßt, ca.100 km vor der syr. (Syrien) und 65 km vor der türkischen (Türkei) Küste gelegen. Im Norden liegt der Gebirgszug des bis 1024 m hohen Pentadaktilos, nach Süden erstreckt sich die zentrale, fruchtbare Ebene, die Messaria, das landwirtschaftliche Hauptanbaugebiet der Insel. Im Südwesten erhebt sich das Massiv des Tróodos mit dem Olympos (1953 m) als höchste Erhebung. Ne…
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