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Toletum

(201 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia (modern Toledo). Chief town of the Carpetani (Plin. HN. 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,57: Τώλητον/ Tṓlēton) on a steep-sided granite plateau on the northern bank of the Tagus, which flows round the city on three sides. During the Romans' conquest of the Iberian Peninsula in 193 BC, there was fierce fighting with the Vaccaei, the Vettones and the Celtiberi in the area of the city (Liv. 35,7,6-8), which was conquered in 192 (Li…

Turdetani

(163 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] Iberian people on the lower Baetis (modern Guadalquivir). The first archaeological evidence of their existence is from the end of the 6th cent. BC, contemporaneous with the decline of the Tartessus culture which they inherited. It was already being discussed in Antiquity whether T. and the Turduli were the same Iberian people on the Baetis; whereas Str. 3,1,6 makes no difference between them, Polybius and Plin. HN 3,13 regard the Turduli as northern, Ptol. 2,4,5 as southern, neigh…

Tarraco

(531 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Limes | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula | Rome | Rome (Ταρράκων/ Tarrákōn). City on the east coast of the Iberian peninsula (earliest mention in Avien. Ora Maritima 512 ff.; Eratosth. in Str. 3,4,7; cf. Plin. HN 3,18; 23; 110; Ptol. 2,6,17; It. Ant. 391,1), modern Tarragona. The city was built in terraces on a sandstone-rock of 160 m height with a harbour to the south west whose bay is sho…

Vascones

(156 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] (Οὐάσκωνες/ Ouáskōnes). Group of peoples who inhabited the area of the modern province of Navarra and parts of modern Aragon, to the north of the Hiberus between Jaca and Cape Higuer (Str. 3,3,7; 3,4,10; Plin. HN 3,22; 4,110). Pompelo (modern Pamplona; Str. 3,4,10) was evidently the chief town of the V.; Cascantum (modern Cascante), Graccurris and Calagurris [1] (Ptol. 2,6,67) were also in the V.' territory. Of their origin nothing is known; their name may be Indo-European ( barscunes, bascunes; [1]). In literature, they are mentioned for the first time in …

Vaccaei

(262 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] (Οὐακκαῖοι/ Ou akkaîoi). Celtic tribe of the valley in the middle reaches of the Durius/Duero (Ptol. 2,6,50; Str. 3,4,12 f.: here conflated with the Celtiberi; Pol. 3,14,1), main settlement Palantia (modern Palencia). Their territory also included Intercatia (modern Aguilar de Campos?) and Cauca (Ptol. 2,6,50; Plin. HN 3,26 knows 17 communities). The V probably migrated into the Iberian peninsula in the 6th cent. BC, coming under Iberian influence from the 3rd cent. BC. They are fir…

Tagus

(88 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] (Τάγος/ Tágos). A gold-bearing (Mela 3,8) river, at 1008 km the longest (Str. 3,2,3; 3,1; 3; Plin. HN 3,19; 25; Ptol. 2,5,4) in the Iberian peninsula, modern Tagus (Spanish Tajo, Portugese Tejo). It rises in the modern Universales mountains, flows through Toletum, Caesarobriga, Augustobriga and into the Oceanus at Olisippo; first mentioned during the campaign Hannibal [4] conducted against the Carpetani in 218 BC (Pol. 3,14,5; Liv. 21,5,8). Stepper, Ruth Bibliography Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 341-349 P. Barceló, Aníbal de Cartago, 2000, 81 TIR K 30 Madrid, 199…

Vettones

(139 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] (Οὐέττονες/ Ouéttones). Central Iberian people with a settlement area between the Rivers Anas and Durius (Ptol. 2,5,9), whose Celtic character is not certain [1. 202 f.]. The V. were herdsmen and cattle breeders. They discovered a herb which was particularly effective against snake bites (Celsus, Med. 5,27,10; modern Betony, Stachys or Betonica officinalis) and in Gaul was called herba Vettonica (Plin. HN 25,84; cf. Placitus Papyriensis). The V. suffered a defeat in 193 BC in battle with the Romans under the praetor M. Fulvius [I 15] at…

Segovia

(214 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
Celtic place name (possibly 'fortress'); ethnic: Segoviensis. [German version] [1] City of the Celtiberian Arevaci This item can be found on the following maps: City of the Celtiberian Arevaci (Plin. HN 3,27; Ptol. 2,6,56; It. Ant. 435,5; but Liv. fr. 21: Segoviam et in Vaccaeorum gentem) at the confluence of the Eresma and Clamores on the northern slopes of Guadarrama between Madrid and Valladolid, now also S. The city is mentioned in the context of the battles between the Lusitani under Viriathus and Rome from 147-139 BC (Frontin. Str. 4…