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Chaldea and the Chaldeans

(219 words)

Author(s): Steymans, Hans Ulrich
[German Version] Chaldea ( kur Kaldu), the settlement area of the Chaldeans ( Kaldayya/ Χαλδαίοι [ Chaldaíoi], כַּשְׁדִים [ kaśdîm]) in southern Mesopotamia. The Chaldeans may be attested already in Middle Assyrian texts. They were organized in tribal states. Whether the Chaldeans were ethnically related to the Arameans (Gen 22:21f.; Jer 35:11; Dan 2:4) or the Arabs, or belonged to a separate semitic group, is unknown. They usurped the throne of Babylon roughly from 780 to 689 bce. The OT refers to the Babylonians only as Chaldeans; Berossus uses both nam…

Oath

(4,263 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Steymans, Hans Ulrich | Börner-Klein, Dagmar | Fitzgerald, John T. | Krieg, Arno | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Ethics – VII. Law I. Religious Studies As a solemn affirmation of a statement, an oath takes its religious quality from the underlying belief in the power of words to effect a blessing or curse (Blessing and curse). Therefore the early phenomenology of religion classed oaths with invective, curses, etc. as words of consecration: those who swear oaths identify themselves with their words and are “consecrated…

Blessing and Curse

(3,866 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Steymans, Hans Ulrich | Lehnardt, Andreas | Fitzgerald, John T. | Greiner, Dorothea | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Historical and Systematic Theology– VI. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies From the perspective of religious studies, blessing and curse are dense, complex terms, hard to summarize in a single concept that would include every religious symbol system. They should not be thought of primarily as opposites but as parallel polyvalent ter…