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Christ, Representations of

(4,878 words)

Author(s): Stock, Alex
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. History I. Terminology The writings of the New Testament contain no description of the external appearance of Jesus Christ. Patristic literature occasionally discusses the question of his appearance (beauty/ugliness) (Just. Dial. 14.8; 49.2; Clement of Alexandria, Paedagogus III 3.3; Stromata II 22.8; III 103.3; VI 151.3; Tert. carn. Chr. 9; Origen Cels. 6.75–77; Aug. Enarrationes in Ps 127:8), but usually raising christological or gnoseological questions, based on Isa 53:2f. and Ps 45:3f., rather than histori…

Ascension of Christ

(3,139 words)

Author(s): Zeller, Dieter | Schmitt, Armin | Boring, M. Eugene | Farrow, Douglas B. | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. History of Dogma and Dogmatics – V. Art History – VI. Judaism I. Religious Studies The attempt to ascend to the abode of the gods is associated with myths and expressions of the impossible (Deut 30:12; Prov 30:4) and of presumption (Isa 14:13f.; the Aloads, Bellerophon). Nevertheless divine help empowers (Wind, cloud, wings, Angels…

Cross/Crucifixion

(4,480 words)

Author(s): Sundermeier, Theo | Taeger, Jens-Wilhelm | Köpf, Ulrich | Slenczka, Notger | Stock, Alex
[German Version] I. The Cross in Non-Christian Religions – II. Crucifixion in Antiquity – III. The Crucifixion of Christ – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatic Theology – VI. The Cross in Modern Art I. The Cross in Non-Christian Religions From prehistoric times to the present, various forms of the cross have appeared in many non-Christian cultures and religions, used both as a religious symbol and as an ornamental design (the boundaries are fluent). It is a primal human symbol. As such it is polysemous and has …

Images of Christ

(1,368 words)

Author(s): Stock, Alex
1. Theoretical Basis The term “images of Christ” refers to the visual substitutes that art finds for the person of Jesus Christ (Jesus), which primarily and authentically has come down to us, and may be identified, only in verbal form. Since there are no original pictures of Christ and the NT tradition tells us nothing about the outward appearance of Jesus of Nazareth, all images of Christ are works of religious imagination. As such, they are important but also debatable in the history of devotion and theology. As regards the origin and development of these images, the productive …