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Reitz, Johann Heinrich

(187 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1655, Oberdiebach – Nov 25, 1720, Wesel), Reformed theologian. After studies in Heidelberg (1675), Bremen (1678), Herborn, and Leiden (1679), he became rector in Frankenthal. In 1681 he became a pastor in Freinsheim, in 1689 inspector in Ladenburg, in 1694 pastor in Asslar, and in 1695 court chaplain and inspector in Braunfels. Under the influence of B.C. Klopfer and H. Horch, he was won to the cause of separatism and chiliasm (Millenarianism) and was removed from office …

Porst, Johann

(276 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1668, Oberkotzau, near Hof – Jan 9, 1728, Berlin). After studies at Leipzig from 1689 to 1692, Porst served as a private tutor in Neustadt an der Aisch, where his reading of P.J. Spener’s penitential sermons converted him to Pietism and led him to organize conventicles. In 1695 he relocated to Berlin and found a place in the group associated with Spener, who supported him. In 1698 he was appointed pastor in Malchow, in 1704 assistant pastor of the Friedrichs­werder and Do…

Egard, Paul

(199 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (c. 1580, Kellinghusen, Holstein – 1655, Nortorf), a Holstein pastor; after studies in Rostock, he was initially deacon, then rector in Rendsburg, and, from 1610, pastor in Nortorf. Egard was a dedicated advocate of inner-Lutheran church critique, the author of edifying books and of practice-orientated interpretations of the Bible. As a supporter and defender of J. Arndt ( Ehrenrettung Johannis Arndten, 1624), he is assigned to the orthodox wing of the Arndt School. Egard was the first Luther…

Rogall, Georg Friedrich

(115 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Apr 19, 1701, Königsberg – Apr 6, 1733, Königsberg). In 1725 Rogall became assistant professor, in 1731 full professor of theology in Königsberg, and in 1729 consistorial counselor. At first he was a follower of the Königsberg Wolffians (C. Wolff), but he experienced conversion in Halle (A.H. Francke) and turned against Wolffianism. In the reorganization of East Prussian church and educational structures initiated by the king of Prussia, following the pattern of Halle Pietism, Rogall took over ¶ from H. Lysius the leading role in opposing orthodoxy (J.J. Q…

Stenger, Johann Melchior

(190 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Sep 26, 1638, Erfurt – Mar 7, 1710, Wittstock). After studying in Jena (1654), Leipzig, Wittenberg, Straßburg (Strasbourg; 1658), and Erfurt, Stenger became a deacon at the Predigerkirche in Erfurt in 1666. His terministic teaching regarding repentance and grace, for which he relied primarily on Sonthoms Güldenes Kleinod (E. Sonthom), set off the “Stenger controversy,” which precipitated a crisis in “early Erfurt Pietism” (Wallmann), which P.J. Spener unsuccessfully tried to resolve. Relieved of his office in Erfurt in 1670, …

Hartlieb, Samuel

(176 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (or Hartlib; c. 1600, Elbing – 1662, London). After studying at Cambridge (1625/1626), Hartlieb moved permanently to England c. 1628. He combined enthusiasm for F. Bacon's scientific reforms with chiliastic expectations and utopian Christian ideas (J.V. Andreae), to whose realization he dedicated himself as an organizer, publisher, correspondent, and publicist. He saw the Puritan revolution as the onset of the millennium, which would bring to England a golden age of science togeth…

Sonthom, Emanuel

(184 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (anagram of E. Thomson; dates unknown), English merchant in Danzig (Gdansk) and Stade (presence documented from 1599 to 1612). Under the title Güldenes Kleinot der Kinder Gottes (Frankfurt am Main, 1612), he translated the First Booke of the Christian Exercise (1582) of the English ¶ Jesuit Robert Persons (or Parsons), which he knew in a Protestant version by Edmund Bunny ( A Booke of Christian Exercise, 1584). After the edition published in Lüneburg in 1632, which included a third section probably written by J. Gesenius, “Sonthom” (so called f…

Nösselt, Johann August

(251 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (May 2, 1734, Halle – Mar 3, 1807, Halle). After schooling at the Latin School of the Francke Stiftung, Halle, Nösselt studied in Halle from 1751 (particularly under the influence of S.J. Baumgarten), and traveled for purposes of study through Germany, Switzerland, and France in 1755. From 1797, Nösselt lectured as M.A. on philosophy and rhetoric, church history, and especially the New Testament, following the historical-philological method of J.A. Ernesti. In 1760 he became assis…

Quandt, Johann Jakob

(241 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1686, Königsberg [Kaliningrad] – Jan 17, 1772, Königsberg), began his studies in Königsberg in 1701 and moved to Leipzig in 1706 (M.A. in 1707), Halle, and Jena, along with an educational journey through Germany and the Low Countries, devoted primarily to the study of eastern languages. In 1710 he became a lecturer at Königsberg, and he received his Dr. theol. from Rostock in 1715. In 1716 he was appointed associate professor of theology. In 1718 he also began serving as …

Molinos, Miguel de

(275 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (baptized Jun 29, 1628, Muniesa, province of Teruel, Spain – Dec. 28/29[?], 1696, Rome) studied from 1646 onward at the Jesuit college of Valencia, where he held a benefice in the Church of San Andrés, and was ordained to the priesthood in 1652. Residing in Rome from 1663, Molinos's role as confessor and spiritual adviser in the style of quietist mysticism made him the focus of a large crowd of followers, which also included cardinals and Pope Innocent XI. His Guía espiritual, a major work of Quietism in which he extolled regular contemplation, inward concentr…

Wittenberg, University of

(976 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (founded as Leucorea). After the division of Wettin Saxony in 1485, in which Leipzig (Leipzig, University) went to the Albertine line, the city of Wittenberg developed into the official residence of the Ernestine line and hence the capital of Electoral Saxony. On Oct 18, 1502, under the elector Frederick the Wise the University of Wittenberg was founded as the official university of electoral Saxony. It was granted imperial privileges on Jul 6, 1502; papal privileges were not gran…

Böhme, Anton Wilhelm

(220 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Jun 1, 1673, Ösdorf – May 27, 1722, Greenwich, England) studied in Halle from c. 1693 and became the informatory at the Waldeckian court in Arolsen. Involved in Waldeck's Pietism dispute (1699/1700), he lost his office in 1700 because of spiritualist and separatist tendencies. After a stay once again with A.H. Francke in Halle, he went to London in …

Anton, Paul

(209 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Feb 12, 1661, Hirschfelde – Oct 20, 1730, Halle). Anton began his studies in Leipzig in 1680; in 1681 he became acquainted with P.J. Spener. In 1686, together with A.H. Francke, he founded the Collegium Philobiblicum, the nucleus of the Pietist movement in Leipzig. In 1695 Anton was called to Halle as professor of theology and …

Rambach

(367 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] 1. Johann Jakob (Feb 24, 1693, Halle – Apr 19, 1735, Giessen). From 1712, Rambach studied in Halle; in 1715 he worked on J.H. Michaelis’s edition of the Biblia Hebraica; from 1719 (together with G.A. Francke), he studied in Jena (esp. under J.F. Buddeus), where in 1720 he gained his M.A.; in 1723 he became assistant in the Halle faculty of theology; in 1726, assistant professor; in 1727, full professor of theology in Halle; in 1731, Dr.theol.; from 1731, professor and general superintendent in Giessen. Ramba…

Breithaupt, Joachim Justus

(225 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1658, Northeim near Göttingen – Mar 16, 1732, Berge Monastery near Magdeburg) studied (1676–1683) in Helmstedt and Kiel (where he lived in the house of C. Kortholt with A.H. Francke) and became associate professor of homiletics there in 1684. In 1685, he became court preacher and consistorial counselor in Meinigen. After a stay with P…

Horneck, Anton

(193 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Anthony; 1641, Bacharach – Jan 31, 1697, London). After his studies at Heidelberg (1659–1661) he lived in England and became a member of Queen's College, Oxford, in 1664. In 1665, he became court tutor to the son of the duke of Albemarle and the latter's protégé. In 1671, he was appointed preacher at Savoy Chapel, where he attracted a large congregation and was much sought after as a pastor. In 1689, he became the court chaplain of William III. Horneck was a cofounder of the Reli…

Saldenus, Guilielmus

(171 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Willem; May, 1627, Utrecht – Aug 2, 1694, The Hague). After studying in Utrecht, Saldenus filled pulpits in Renswoude (1649), Kokkengen (1652), Enkhuizen (1655), Delft (1664) and The Hague (1677). As a pupil of G. Voetius, influenced by W. Ames and English edifying literature, he supported the Puritan wing of the Nadere Reformatie, advocating Sunday observance and catechetical instruction and forbidding card-playing and theater. He wrote many edifying works, which also influenced…

Koelman, Jacobus

(222 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (baptized Nov 23, 1631, Utrecht – Feb 6, 1695, Utrecht). After studying in Utrecht, he was chaplain to the embassies in Copenhagen and ¶ Brussels from 1657. From 1662, he was pastor in Sluis, Zeeland. As a student of G. Voetius and significantly influenced by (English and Scottish) Puritanism (Puritans/Puritanism), Koelman became the programmatist and militant defender of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie. He pushed for Sunday observance and for church discipline and opposed church holidays and compulsory wors…

Herrnschmidt, Johann Daniel

(194 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Apr 11, 1675, Bopfingen, Württemberg – Feb 5, 1723, Halle). Following his studies in Altdorf and Halle, Herrnschmidt was Informator at the Paedagogium and at the Gynaeceum of A.H. Francke's foundations from 1700 onward, became adjunct of the theological faculty in 1701, and was deacon in Bopfingen from 1702 to 1712. In 1712, after being awarded a Dr.theol. in Halle, he was appointed superintendent and councilor of the consistory in Idstein (Nassau). He was called back to Halle in 1715 to assist Fra…

Gedicke, Lambert

(208 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Lampertus; Jan 6, 1683, Gardelegen – Feb 21, 1735, Berlin). From his student years in Berlin (where J. Lange was rector), Gedicke was influenced by Pietism, encouraged in particular by C.H. von Canstein and A.H. Francke. After studying at Halle, he was appointed preceptor at Francke's orphanage (to 1708). After brief service as a private tutor in Berlin, in 1709 he was appointed chaplain of the Garrison regiment; in 1710 he took part in the Brabant campaign during the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1713 ¶ he was appointed chaplain of the Wartensleben regiment an…
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