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(202 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Κωκυτός; Kōkytós, Lat. Cocytus). [German version] [1] River of the Underworld ‘River of lamentation’ (cf. κωκύειν, ‘to weep, lament’). According to Paus. 1,17,5 from Homer onwards one of the rivers of the Underworld, named after the Thesprotic C. [1. 76]. It is fed from the  Styx and flows with the Pyriphlegeton into the  Acheron [2] (Hom. Od. 10,513f.); in Virgil the Acheron flows into the C. (Verg. Aen. 6,296f.). According to Pl. Phd., the C. flows around in a circle and empties into the  Tartarus (113b…


(206 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Τριχόνειον/ Trichóneion, literary Τριχώνιον/ Trichṓnion). Aetolian city (Aetoli) to the south of Lake Trichonis (modern Limni Trichonida) on the northern slopes of the Aracynthus mountains (modern Zygos) near modern Gavalu. T. was the most significant city of central Aetolia, supplied most of the strategoi (cf. Stratēgós ) of the Aetolian League, but is mentioned in historiographic literature only in the context of Philippus [7] V's campaign to Thermus …

Ceraunian Mountains

(131 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεραύνια ὄρη; Keraúnia órē). The most northern of the coastal ranges of Epirus (Str. 7,5,8; 7,6,1; 7,7,5), modern Rëza e Kanalit (or Karaburun) in Albania. It starts in the south at the Çikë range (2045 m) and ends in the north in the far protruding Cape  Acroceraunia. The rugged limestone heights (up to 1593 m) are much feared because of their frequent thunderstorms, after which they were named ‘Thunder Mountains’. Only in the south were ancient landings or settlements found: Kemar…


(263 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Θύρρειον/ Thýrrheion, Θύριον/ Thýrion, Θούριον/ Thoúrion). City in northern Acarnania, 5 km to the south of the Gulf of Ambracia, at a height of 420 m, modern Thyrion. Still autonomous in the 4th cent. BC (Xen. Hell. 6,2,37), no later than the 3rd cent. T. was a member of the Acarnanian Koinón (IG IX 12, 1, 23); in 269 BC with the partition of the Koinón it fell to Epirus and from 238 to 232 and again c. 211 BC was Aetolian (Aetolians; the treaty of alliance between Rome and Aetolia was found i…


(276 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
(Πανδοσία; Pandosía). [German version] [1] City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus. Allegedly one of the four Elean colonies in the territory of the Cassopaei on the Acheron [1] (Demosth. Or. 7,32; Theopompus FGrH 115 F 382). It is presumed that it was founded in the 8th/7th cent. BC [1; 3. 427] or not until the 5th cent. [2. 52]. P. is located near Trikastron about 17 km inland [1. 52f.; 2. 477f.]. Coins: [2. 107-110]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 S.I. Dakaris, Cassopaia and the Elean Colonies, 1971 2 P.R. Franke, Die antiken M…


(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀγραῖοι; Agraíoi). Tribe in north-western Aetolia between the Amphilochi and Aperanti. Independent in the 5th cent. BC (‘kingship’, Thuc. 3,111,4); two centuries later member of the koinon of the  Aetolians. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Agraioi, in: Dialogues d'histoire ancienne 13, 1987, 199-236.


(736 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Χαλκίς; Chalkís). [German version] [1] Settlement in Euboea on the Euripus This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Dark Ages | Ionic | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources | Boeotia, Boeotians In Euboea on the Euripus; by its especially strategic position the most important town on the island. It remains uncertain whether the name C. derives from the or…


(163 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τυμφαία; Tymphaía). Region in Epirus, to the east of Mount Tymphe (2497 m high, modern Mavrovouni) in the Pindus [1]. T. extended in the northeast from the source rivers of the Veneticus to the basin region of the upper Haliacmon as far as modern Grevená, in the south as far as the area of the source of the Peneius around modern Kalabáka. The Tymphaei were originally considered as Epeirotae (Arr. An. 1,7,5; Str. 7,7,8f.; Plin. HN 4,6), and from the time of Philippus [4] II (cf. [1…


(246 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (ὁ or ἡ Στράτος/ Strátos (m/f)). The most important city of Acarnania (Thuc. 2,80; Acarnanians, Acarnania, with map); on the right bank of the Achelous [1], upstream of the modern Stratos; chief city of the Acarnanian confederacy in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. After the partition of Acarnania in 260 BC, S. became Aetolian; with the foundation of Nicopolis [3] in 30 BC, …


(1,797 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meriç, Recep (Izmir) | Et al.
(μητρόπολις/ mētrópolis, literally ‘mother city’). [German version] [1] Mother city of colonies in the era of the ‘Great’ Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC) Since the so-called Great Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC, Colonization IV, cf. the overview there), in numerous Greek communities an oikistḗs (‘founder’) and further ápoikoi (‘settlers’, ‘colonists’) were selected from the citizenry of the future metropolis as starting point for a colonisation enterprise (or they left on their own initiative) and entrusted with the establishment of an apoikía outside the …


(656 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (ἡ Ζάκυνθος; hē Zákynthos). The southernmost of the Ionian islands (401 km2; approximately 37 km in length, 19 km in width); the southeastern coast is 16 km from the mainland (Elis [1] in the Peloponnesus). Three zones cross Z. from northwest to southeast: in the west a broad almost uninhabited limestone mountain range (Vrachionas, up to 756 m high) with a steep harbourless coast, …


(62 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὀγχεσμός/ Onchesmós). Port in Epirus, today's Sarandë (Hagioi Saranda) in Albania. O. served as harbour for Phoenice, the main city of the district of Chaonia. In Roman times, O. was the ferry port between Epirus and Italy (Cic. Att. 7,2,1; Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51,2). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976  N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967.


(1,042 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Persian Wars (Ἰθάκη; Ithákē, Lat. Ithaca). [German version] A. Geography One of the central Ionian islands west of Greece, nowadays also known as Thiaki; it is 23 km long and c. 6 km wide, with a total area of c. 94 sq km, east of the island of  Cephallenia and separated from the latter by a 2-5 km wide sound. I. is divided into a larger northern half with Mt. Neriton (808 m), and a southern half with Mt. Merovigli (671 m); they are joined by a narrow isthmus (600 m wide) with Mt. Aetus…


(1,836 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ἤπειρος; Ḗpeiros, Epirus) [German version] I. Region E. is located at the north-western fringe of the Greek cultural sphere, nowadays comprising northern Greece and southern Albania. From Homer (8th cent. BC) to the late 5th cent., the geographical term ἤπειρος ( ḗpeiros) referred to the mainland north of the Gulf of Ambracia. There is a wide variation in the attribution of individual tribes to E. both in ancient and modern literature, making it impossible clearly to define E.'s geographic expansion [1]. E. was bordered in the west by…


(95 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (τὰ Ἀκροκεραύνια). Gebirgszug an der Küste von Epeiros (h. Karaburun in Albanien) in der Fortsetzung der Keraunischen Berge im Gebiet der Chaones, Grenze zu Illyrien (Strab. 7,7,5; Plin. nat. 3,97,1; 145,2), desgleichen Halbinsel, 16 km lang, 3-5 km breit und bis zu 800 m hoch, die den Golf von Aulon (Vlores) und den Hafen Orikos schützt. Wegen Unwirtlichkeit und häufiger Unwetter metonymisch für “gefährliche Orte” (Ov. rem. 739; vgl. ThLL 1, 42). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 679, 690-92  Philippson/Kirsten 2, 11 f., 59 f…


(44 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Πτυχία). Insel zw. Korkyra [1] und dem Festland (Thuk. 4,46,3); wohl das h. Vido nördl. der h. Stadt Kerkyra. Belegt auch bei Ptol. 3,13,9 und Plin. nat. 4,53. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s. v. P., RE 23, 1893 f.


(134 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Νήριτον). Urspr. wohl poetische Bezeichnung für “Bergwald” [1. 185], Name eines bewaldeten Berges auf Ithake (Hom. Od. 9,22; 13,351). Im homer. Schiffskat. (Hom. Il. 2,632) ist die Bed. unklar: N. ist entweder ebenfalls als Berg [2. 591-596] oder als Insel bzw. Stadt neben Ithake zu verstehen (vgl. Verg. Aen. 3,271; Ov. met. 13,712; Mela 2,110). Andere ant. Autoren identifizieren N. mit dem Ort Nerikos, den sie auf Leukas lokalisieren (vgl. Plin. nat. 4,5). Bei ant. Autoren und in den Hss. gehen daher die Formen Nerikos und Neritos durcheinander (Plin. nat. 4,5…


(57 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Ποτειδανία). Stadt in Aitolia (Aitoloi, mit Karte) im Gebiet der Apodotoi, identifiziert mit den Ruinen südöstl. des h. Kambos am mittleren Mornos durch hier gefundene Freilassungsurkunden (SEG 41, 528) von 135/4 v. Chr. Vgl. Thuk. 3,96,2; Liv. 28,8,9. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 49-52  D. Strauch, Röm. Politik und griech. Trad., 1996, 301.


(43 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Dalmatische Insel (h. Murter, Kroatien), zum conventus von Salona gehörig; Plin. nat. 3,140; Ptol. 2,13,3; Geogr. Rav. 408,13. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J.J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 487  S. Čače, Colentum insula (Plinio Nat. Hist. 3,140), in: Diadora 10, 1988, 65-72.


(1,595 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ἤπειρος, Epirus) [English version] I. Landschaft E. liegt im äußersten NW des griech. Kulturraums im h. Griechenland und in S-Albanien. Von Homer an (8.Jh. v.Chr.) bis in das späte 5. Jh. bezeichnet ἤπειρος ( ḗpeiros) als geogr. Begriff das Festland nördl. des Ambrakischen Golfes. Die Zuordnung der Stämme zu E. in ant. und moderner Lit. schwankt, so daß die geogr. Ausdehnung von E. nicht eindeutig zu beschreiben ist [1]. Die Grenzen sind im Westen das Ion. Meer, im Süden zu den Akarnanes und Amphilochoi der Ambrakische Golf, im…
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