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Tectosages

(783 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Τεκτόσαγες/ Tektósages). [German version] I. Overview Sub-tribe of the Volcae, a Celtic group of peoples, referred to as Volcae T., who probably originated in the low mountain ranges from Thuringia to northeastern Bavaria ( circum Hercyniam silvam, Caes. B Gall. 6,24,1-4) ([1. 172-179]; differing: [4]). In the 4th cent. BC, the majority group of the Volcae were caught in a migration-dynamic in which a part of them, dominated by the T., moved across the Danube region into southeastern Europe. Another group of the T. adopted strong…

Cratea

(128 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Κράτεια, Κράτια). City in Bithynia, known today as Gerede, newly founded as Flaviopolis in the Flavian period (end of the 1st cent. AD). It was the main city of the South Paphlagonian border area in the Gerede Basin and was annexed to Galatia in c. 275/4 BC, and in 179, annexed to Paphlagonia (Land of Gaizatorix; Str. 12,3,41). In 6/5 BC, it became  Bithynia et Pontus and was part of Paphlagonia under Diocletianus (late 3rd cent. AD), later part of Honoria. Documented as a diocese since AD 342/3. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibl…

Prusa, Prusa ad Olympum

(588 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Προῦσα, Προῦσα πρὸς Ὀλύμπῳ τῷ ὄρει/ Proûsa, Proûsa pròs Olýmpōi tôi órei). City in Bithynia, on the northern slopes of Olympus [13] in Mysia (Str. 12,4,3), modern Bursa. A Prusias who is supposed to have fought Croesus  (Str. ibidem), the Bithynian king Prusias [1] I (Arr. FGrH 156 F 29) and Hannibal [4] (Plin. HN 5,148; [1. 1103 f.] accordingly dates the foundation to 188 or 187 BC) have been named as founders. Coins show the official tradition of foundation by Prusias I, who created it as…

Blucium

(71 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Βλούκιον; Bloúkion, Blucium). Residential castle of Deiotarus I (Str. 12,5,2; Cic. Deiot. 17). Archaeological finds: necropolis, settlements near Karalar [1; 2]. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 R. O. Arık, Karalar Hafriyatı, in: TTAD 2, 1934, 103-167 2 T. Saatçı, in: Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi 1986 Yıllığı, 30-33; 1987 Yıllığı, 19-22. S. Mitchell, Blucium and Peium, in: AS 24, 1974, 61-75 K. Strobel, Die Galater, 2, 1997.

Axylos

(61 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Axylos terra). Treeless grass steppe south of the upper  Sangarius between Emir Daǧları and  Tatta (Tuz Gölü) -- an area characterized by pasture farming in the border zone of Phrygia and Galatia with Lycaonia, (Liv. 38,18,4), cf. Str. 12,6,1). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Strobel, Galatien und seine Grenzregionen, in: Asia Minor Studies 12, 1994, 29-65, here: 54ff., 59.

Mocis(s)us

(86 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μωκισ(σ)ός/ Mṓkis(s)ós, also Mocesus, Iustinianupolis). Town in Cappadocia, which was rebuilt around 520 AD by Iustinianus I as a mountain stronghold (Procop. Aed. 5,4,15); present-day Viranşehir, to the south of Aksaray. It was probably relocated again at the end of the 7th cent. and was still a metropolitan seat in the 14th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography A. Berger, Survey in Viranşehir (M.), in: Araştırma sonuçları toplantısı 13, 1996, 109-126; 14, 1997, 27-41; 15, 1998, 227-237  Hild/Restle, 238f.  W. Ruge, s.v. M., RE 15, 2514f.

Trocmi

(345 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Τρόκμοι/ Trókmoi, Latin Trocmi). Celtic tribe, which, together with the Tolistobogii and led by Lutarius, passed through Thracia (Thracians) in 279/8 BC into the territory of Byzantium; they were recruited by Nicomedes [2] I as allies [1.236-264]. The east Galatian region around central and lower Cappadocia which was won over to support the Pontic kings (probably 274/3 BC) became the home of the T. It was divided into four tribal principalities (tetrarchies with centres of power in …

Cataonia

(87 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Καταονία; Kataonía). Region and strategia in south-eastern Cappadocia between Taurus and Antitaurus, bordering on Cilicia, Commagene, and Melitene (Str. 11,12,2; 12,1,1-2,4), originally a Luwian-speaking region; in 301 BC, it fell to Seleucus I, probably as a dowry of Stratonice for Ariarathes III of Cappadocia; in AD 17, it became part of the province of Cappadocia, belonged to  Armenia Minor under Diocletian, to Armenia II in AD 386, and to Armenia III in AD 536. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 10, 2478f. Hild/Restle, 202.

Libyssa

(68 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Λίβυσσα; Líbyssa, also τὰ Βουτίου; tà Boutíou). Town on the north coast of the Gulf of Izmit on the river Libyssus (Λίβυσσος; Líbyssos, modern Tavsançıl Deresi); nearby was the monument of Hannibal (Arr. FGrH 156 F 28; Plin. HN 5,148; Tzetz. Chil. 1,803ff.). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Th. Wiegand, Zur Lage des Hannibalgrabes, in: MDAI(A) 27, 1902, 321-326 W. Ruge, s.v. L./Libyssos, RE 13, 203.

Cappadox

(48 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Καππάδοξ; Kappádox). Tributary of the  Halys, modern Delice Irmağı (upper course: Karanlık/Boğazlıyan Çayı, north-eastern tributary: Kanak Çayı); rising in northern Cappadocia, the C. is the main river of eastern Galatia. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 10, 1919f. K. Strobel, Die Galater, 1, 1996.

Nyssa

(49 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Byzantion, Byzanz (Νύσσα). Altanatolischer Siedlungsplatz und Stadt in der kappadokischen Strategie Morimene (Ptol. 5,6,23), h. Büyük-/Küçükkaletepe nördl. von Harmandalı. 372 n.Chr. wurde Gregorios [2] Bischof von N. Bereits im 9. Jh. verfiel der Ort. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 246-248.

Archelais

(100 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae Stadt im südwestl. Kappadokia, h. Aksaray. Vom letzten kappadokischen König Archelaos [7] an der Stelle des altes Zentrums Garsau(i)ra (als κωμόπολις, komopolis: Strab. 12,2,6 mit 14,2,29) nach 36 v. Chr. errichtet. Von Kaiser Claudius zur Colonia Claudia Archelais erhoben, seit dem 4. Jh. n. Chr. als Kolon(e)ia bzw. civitas Colonia geführt. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography D. French, Latin Inscr. from Aksaray (Colonia Archalais in Cappadocia), in: ZPE 27, 1977, 247-249  F. Hild, M. Restle, Kapp…

Pant(e)ichium

(67 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Παντ(ε)ίχιον; Pant(e)íchion). Harbour town and fortress south-east of Calchedon in the border region of Nicomedeia, the modern Pendik; already inhabited in Early History. According to Procop. Goth. 3,35,4, Belisarius owned a country estate there. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F.K. Dörner, s.v. P., RE 18, 779f.  R. Janin, Constantinople Byzantine, 21964, 502  Id., Les églises et les monastères des grands centres byzantins, 1975, 8, 52ff., 62.

Proseilemmenitae

(100 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Προσειλημμενῖται; Proseilēmmenîtai). Inhabitants of the territory of Proseilemmene in the frontier region between Lycaonia and Galatia, originally part of Phrygia Megale, between Karaca Dağ, Paşa Dağı and Tuz Gölü (Tatta Limne); assigned in 25/4 BC as a regio attributa ('associated region') to the urban area of Ancyra, in the Antonine period (late 2nd/early 3rd cents. AD) organized into the urban community of Cinna (Ptol. 5,4,10; [1. 56 f., 59 f.], pace [2. 55, 148]). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 K. Strobel, Galatien und seine Grenzregionen, in: E.…

Nazianzus

(71 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ναζιανζός/ Nazianzós, orig. Nadiandós). Settlement in Cappadocia, later in the province of Cappadocia II (Hierocles, Synekdemos 700,5), modern Bekârlar, 30 km east of Aksaray; from AD 325 it is recorded as a bishopric, in the 11th century a metropolitan seat and in the 14th cent. it is described as deserted. Gregorius [3] was bishop here in 382-3. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 244f.  W. Ruge, s.v. Nazianzos, RE 16, 2099-2101.

Nakida

(61 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Hittite Naḫita). Important pre- and early historical settlement and Byzantine fortified city [1], modern Niğde. After the destruction of Tyana in AD 833 it took on the function of capital of southern Cappadocia. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. Prayon, Kleinasien vom 12.-6. Jahrhundert v.Chr. (TAVO Beiheft B 82), s.v. N. Hild/Restle, 243f.  B. Radt, Anatolien, vol. 1, 1993, 140-143.

Arabissus

(68 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Ἀραβισ(σ)ός; Arabis(s)ós). Town in  Cappadocia; the modern Afşin (formerly Yarpuz), near the confluence of three tributary sources of the Pyramus (It. Ant. 210,11). At the end of the 4th cent. headquarters of the legio XII Moderatiana. Mentioned from AD 381 as a suffragan bishopric. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. Hild, M. Restle, Kappadokien (TIB 2), 1981, 144 f.

Askania Limne

(62 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ἀσκανία λίμνη; Askanía límnē). Ascanian Lake, also known as Lake  Nicaea in  Bithynia (modern İznik Gölü); the name was applied to the lake and the surrounding region, the western part of which was taken as belonging to Mysia, the eastern one to Phrygia (Str. 12,4,5; Plin. HN 5,40,8). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. A., RE 2, 1610.

Cappadocia, II.

(639 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Roman province in central and eastern Asia Minor, with Caesarea [3] as its capital. After the death of  Archealus [7] I in AD 17, the kingdom of  Cappadocia was annexed in 18/19 under the command of Q. Veranius, a legate of Germanicus (Tac. Ann. 2,42,4). The province with an auxiliary garrison was under the administration of a procurator (Tac. Ann. 12,49; Cass. Dio 57,17,7); under Cn. Domitius Corbulo (55-61 and 63-65/66) and L. Iunius Caesennius Paetus (61-63), it was united with  Galatia. In 70/71, the Legio XII Fulminata was transferred to Melitene (Joseph BJ 7,1…

Preietus

(86 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Πρείετος/ Preíetos). Port and episcopal city in Bithynia (Bithynia et Pontus), on the southern coast of the Bay of Astacus or Nicomedia, probably near modern Karamürsel, named after the Bithynian god of war P., who had one of his main cult sites there (Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos, De thematibus 1,27: Πραίνετος/ Praínetos; Tab. Peut. 9,2: Pronetios; Plin. HN 31,23: Brietium). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. K. Dörner, s. v. Preietos (2), RE 22, 1832-1835  Id., Inschriften und Denkmäler in Bithynien (IstForsch 14), 1941, 37-40, 65-67, no. 39-42.
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