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Gauda

(70 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of the Numidian king Mastanabal, grandson of Massinissa, brother of  Jugurtha, claimed rule despite his mental and physical debility during the war between Rome and Jugurtha. After the war in 105 BC he succeeded his uncle Micipsa with the support of Marius and obtained eastern Numidia (Sall. Iug. 65,1-4). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography CAH 9 21994, 30 V. Werner, Quantum bello optimus, tantum pace pessimus, 1995, 35.

Pater patriae

(527 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (‘Father of the Fatherland’). The title PP was officially conferred to Roman emperors from Augustus to Theodosius. The corresponding female title mater patriae is documented for Livia [2] (cf. [1. 98]) and Iulia [12] Domna [2. 67-70; 3]. The titles parens and pater were originally bestowed to equate the role of a benefactor with that of a father. Both M. Furius [I 13] Camillus (Liv. 5,49,7: parens patriae) and Fabius [I 30] Cunctator were referred to as parentes, because they  had liberated the patria from its enemies.  The title parens (or respectively pater) ob civ…

Gemellus

(150 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Friend of king Herod I, entrusted with political and diplomatic commisions Friend of King Herod I. Entrusted with political and diplomatic commissions and with the education of Alexander, the eldest son of the king of Mariamme, he accompanied him in 23 BC to Rome for five years. When in 14 BC Herod began to distrust his son, G. fell from grace (Jos. Ant. Iud. 16,241-243). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Accompanied his father Anatolius, the governor, AD 361 to Phoenicia Son of Anatolius, Cilician, brother of Apolinarius, with whom he …

Gundericus

(183 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gunderic). In AD 406 G. was chosen as king of the Vandal Hasdingians after the death of his father  Godigiselus; he united his troops with the Alani under Respendial (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9), defeated the Franks and by the end of 406 crossed the Rhine. Without facing organized resistance, he plundered Gaul (Oros. 7,40,3; Chron. min. 1,299; 465 Mommsen; Zos. 6,3), crossed the Pyrenees in 409 (Chron. min. 2,17; Soz. 9,12; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,2) and secured for himself the east of th…

Perioche

(57 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (περιοχή/ periochḗ, 'summary of contents'). Periochaí are - in contrast to the often editorially reworked and thematically arranged epitomḗ - summaries of the contents of historical prose works, for the purposes of rapid orientation. On the perioch to Livy's [Livius III 2] History, cf. [1. 190-193]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. L. Schmidt, in: HLL 5, 1989.

Hermericus

(62 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] AD 419-438 king of the Suebi, who in 419 fought unsuccessfully against the Vandals in Spain (Hydatius Lemiensis 71). After pillaging Gallaecia in 430 and 433 (ibid. 91; 100), he made peace. In 438, already suffering from illness, he handed his throne to his son Rechila; he died in 441 (ibid. 114; 122). PLRE 2,546f. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Godomarus

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gundomarus, Gundomar). Son of  Gundobad, after the death of his brother Sigismundus (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,6) in AD 524 he was elevated to the position of king of the Burgundians (Chron. min. 2,235 Mommsen). He defeated the Franks under Chlodomer at Vienne on 25 June 524, entered in 530 into an alliance with  Amalasuntha and bought the freedom of prisoners of war (CIL XII 2584). In 533 the Franks under Chlothachar and Childebert defeated G. at Autun and in 534 divided up the Burgundian kingdom amongst themselves (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,11). PLRE 2, 517 G. (2). Meier, Mischa (Bie…

Helenus

(636 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Ἕλενος; Hélenos). [German version] [1] One of the great early seers One of the great early seers, more important in the epic kyklos than in Homer; son of  Priamus and  Hecabe (Hom. Il. 6,76; 7,44; Soph. Phil. 605f.; Apollod. 3,151; P Oxy. 56,3829), twin brother of  Cassandra (Anticlides FGrH 140 F 17; P Oxy. 56,3830). According to a probably archaic tradition, H. received his gift of prophecy when he was still a child in the temple of Apollo Thymbraeus, where he and Cassandra had fallen asleep. When their parents re…

Dynasteia

(593 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (δυναστεία; dynasteía, cf. also δυνάστης; dynástēs, ‘Ruler’). Derived from δύνασθαι; dýnasthai, ‘to be capable’, ‘to be able’; ‘to have influence’, ‘to be wealthy’ [1. 116]. Dynasteia was primarily the rule ( rulership) of a small, influential group, within which high offices were inherited. Two basic levels of meaning are to be distinguished for dynasteia: in the first of them, its character as the term for a group of rulers or an individual ruler expresses more the original sense of the word; in the second the inheritance of lea…

Tanusia

(47 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of the equestrian L. Tanusius, well acquainted with Octavia [2], the sister of Augustus. She and the freed slave Philopoemen rescued her proscribed husband T. Vinius in 43 BC (Suet. Aug. 27,2; Cass. Dio 47,7,4 f.; App. B Civ. 4,44). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Gannascus

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A Canninefate, who deserted from Roman service and together with the Chauci laid waste to Lower Germania and the Gallic bank of the Rhine after the death of  Sanquinius Maximus, the governor of Lower Germania, in AD 47. The new governor  Domitius [II 11] Corbulo drove G. away and restored order. When he had G. murdered by a ruse, unrest again broke out among the Chauci, causing Claudius to pull the advance troops back to the west bank of the Rhine (Tac. Ann. 11,18f.). PIR2 G 73. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Dengizich

(96 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Dintzic, Greek Δεγγιζίχ, Δινζίριχος; Dengizích, Dinzírichos). Son of Attila, king of the Huns; after the latter's death D. assembled an army from the elements of the Hun empire that were still under his control, to fight the Goths. He was, however, defeated at Bassianae (Pannonia) by the Goths (probably after AD 456/57, Iord. Get. 272f.). He later conducted several wars against the Romans but was killed in 469 by the mag. mil. per Thracias Anagestes (Prisc. fr. 36 [FHG 4,107f.]; Chron. pasch. 323d Dindorf). PLRE 354f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Boch…

Eparchia

(184 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (ἐπαρχία; eparchía). Territorial administrative unit in Hellenistic states. In the Seleucid kingdom, Antiochus [5] III especially supported the setting up of smaller provinces in order to prevent power concentrations in the areas of individual satraps, as for example  Molon (222 BC). Polybius describes their head, who evidently had military and civil power, as éparchos or stratēgós (Pol. 5,46,7; 48,14); however his terminology is misleading since from the middle of the 2nd cent. BC on, eparchia started taking on the meaning of Lat . provincia (cf. SIG3 683,55 and …

Caecilia

(562 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[German version] [1] C. Gaia Wife of Tarquinius Priscus Wife of  Tarquinius Priscus (Fest. p. 276); in Plin. HN 8,194 and Paul. Fest. s.v. G.C. p. 85 L., her name is  Tanaquil (refer [1]). Her name links her to the goddess Gaia and thus with wedding rites. For the connection with the ager Tarquiniorum cf. Liv. 2,5; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,13,2-4, with the river god Tiber [2. 378-83]. For the name C. [2. 382]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Thomsen, King Servius Tullius, 1980, Index s.v. Tanaquil 2 A. Momigliano, Roma Arcaica, 1989, 371-83 (with all sources). …

Fravitta

(133 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Fravitus). Tervingian army commander in the service of Rome, married to a Roman woman. In support of maintaining the Roman alliance with the Goths of AD 382, he killed Eriulf in 391 at the court of Theodosius I (Zos. 4,56,1-3; Eunapius fr. 60 FHG 4,41). In about 400 as the magister militum on behalf of Arcadius he prevented Gaenas from crossing the Hellespont (Zos. 5,20-21; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 8,4,19-21) and was rewarded for it in 401 with the consulate (Eunapius fr. 82 FHG 4,50). Around 403/4, however, he was accused of allowing …

Augustus [2]

(305 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Αὔγουστος; Aúgoustos, Σεβαστός; Sebastós). From the time of its first bestowal as a honorific on 16 January AD 27 ( Feriale Cumanum, R. Gest. div. Aug. 34) on  Octavianus, and its bequeathal by him to  Tiberius [1], the title of A. (‘the Sublime’) became an established titular component of the imperial name, but without at the same time bestowing any legal powers. Elevation to A. by the Senate, in the 3rd cent. often by the army ( Soldier emperors), marked the official installation ( dies imperii) of the Roman ruler; the praenomen Imperatoris was added to the title as …

Cetrius

(52 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] C. Severus C., tribune of the praetorians; in AD 69, together with Subrius Dexter and Pompeius Longinus, he came out in support of  Galba to oppose the incipient rise of  Otho (Tac. Hist. 1,31). He is probably the beneficiarius from ILS 2073. PIR C 703. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Demaratus

(514 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Et al.
(Δημάρατος; Dēmáratos). [German version] [1] Corinthian aristocrat 7th cent. BC Corinthian aristocrat, member of the  Bacchiadae family. D. made his fortune as a merchant around the middle of the 7th cent. BC, mainly through trade with Etruria. When he had to leave Corinth during the rule of  Cypselus he settled in Tarquinii with his followers and married an Etruscan aristocrat. According to ancient tradition the marriage produced two sons, one of whom became the first Etruscan king of Rome,  Tarquinius P…

Dasius

(188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Messapic name in Lat. form (Schulze, 39, 44; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Respected bearers of that name in Apulia (in particular from Arpi and Sala) were still anti-Roman during the Second Punic War. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1] Commander of Clastidium against Hannibal D. from Brundisium, in 218 BC commander of the allied occupation forces of  Clastidium with large Roman stores which he betrayed to Hannibal after the victory at the Ticinus for 400 pieces of gold (Pol. 3,69; Liv. 21,48). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Leader of the pro-Carthaginian p…

Epigraphy

(47 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Epigraphy, from Greek ἐπιγράφειν ( epigráphein, ‘to write on something’). The term refers to ancient texts that were documented on various, mostly permanent materials (stone, bronze, etc.), as well as to the respective sub-discipline of archaeology.  Inscriptions; Epigraphy Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
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