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International Treaties

(2,945 words)

Author(s): Strupp, Michael
1. International Treaties and Sinocentric Tributary System up to the Opium Wars Over the centuries, international treaties have developed into one of the supporting legs of "Eurocentric" international law; but even within the Western world they did not always come into being on the basis of the sovereign equality of the concluding parties. Treaties between states were not unknown even in the China of the Spring and Autumn period (770 to 481 BCE). It is true, the concept of the tributary system which evolved…

Law of the Sea

(971 words)

Author(s): Strupp, Michael
After overseas exploration had experienced its heyday in China during the 15th century, China fell into continental isolation for centuries as a result of "Sinocentrism". China did not rediscover the "ocean sphere" until the first half of the 19th century, when the Chinese world order was lethally threatened by colonial imperialism - from the sea, of all things, and with opium ships as a vanguard. During one of the first conflicts with the Western powers, the Qing dynasty already came to appreci…