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Great Leap Forward

(1,793 words)

Author(s): Teiwes, Frederick C.
The Great Leap Forward was the first great disaster of the Maoist era. Emerging suddenly in late 1957, this unprecedented developmental strategy marked a rejection of both the cautious policies of "opposing rash advance" and the Soviet economic model. By early 1958, Mao Zedong had raised this mass campaign to the level of political "line", and a flurry of untested schemes and wild targets ensued. The resultant economic dislocation was not repaired when Mao called for a "cooling down" in the fall…

Hundred Flowers Movement

(1,387 words)

Author(s): Teiwes, Frederick C.
The Hundred Flowers Movement of 1956-57 represented the first major miscalculation by Mao Zedong in the post-1949 era, one that contributed mightily to the chain of events resulting in the disastrous Great Leap Forward. Beginning as part of a broad appeal to intellectuals in early 1956, ambivalent implementation only produced a limited response from skilled elites and party cadres alike. After a period of wavering, Mao decided to reinvigorate the policy in early 1957 and linked it to rectificati…

Rectification Campaigns

(1,279 words)

Author(s): Teiwes, Frederick C.
Rectification campaigns represent a distinctive approach of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to party discipline, one emphasizing persuasion and education under the slogan "cure the illness in order to save the patient". This approach developed in Yan'an under the leadership of Mao Zedong as part of a larger effort to create predictable organizational norms and party unity. As the initial Yan'an rectification of 1942-44 coincided with the waxing of CCP fortunes, it was regarded as an essential …