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Farewell Discourse

(199 words)

Author(s): Theobald, Michael
[German Version] The farewell discourse is a literary genre found in biblical and early Jewish literature. Its characteristic feature – as distinct from the ultima verba ¶ of illustrious men of Hellenistic-Roman literature – is the combination of a fictitious farewell scene and a speech in which a pious man from Israel's past passes on his spiritual legacy to those entrusted to him before he departs (either through death or translation). The speech contains a parenesis and a prediction for the future. The genre can be used as a framework ( T.12 Patr., As.Mos.) or as a subgenre in larger…

Romans, Epistle of Paul to the

(3,974 words)

Author(s): Theobald, Michael
[German Version] The placing of Romans at the beginning of the Corpus Paulinum (Bible : III, 2) demonstrates how much significance was ascribed to this Epistle at an early date. If there was, in the 2nd century, the alternative of opening the Corpus Paulinum with Galatians (cf. Tert. Marc. V 15), the final decision for Romans implies the hermeneutical option to interpret Paul on the basis of this document, as ecumenical and concerned with Israel, not on the basis of the antagonistic Epistle Galatians. Moreover, Romans is probably the last sur…


(1,013 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Theobald, Michael (Tübingen) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
(Κύριος; Kýrios, ‘lord’). I. Religion [German version] A. Pagan Addressing a deity felt to be powerful with ‘lord’ is widespread in Greek religious language. Since Homer, gods (especially Apollo and Zeus) can be addressed by the Mycenaean royal title anax (Ἄναξ), ‘king, lord’ [1]. A number of powerful goddesses (Cybele, Aphrodite, Artemis, Demeter and Persephone, Hecate, Isis) are since archaic times invoked as déspoina (Δέσποινα), ‘mistress’, and, somewhat more rarely, male gods as despótes (Δεσπότης) [2; 3]. Even though the archaic word anax is used only in epic and prayer …


(897 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Theobald, Michael (Tübingen) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
(Κύριος, “Herr”). I. Religion [English version] A. Pagan Die Anrede einer als machtvoll erfahrenen Gottheit mit “Herr” ist verbreitet in griech. rel. Sprache. Seit Homer können Götter (bes. Apollon und Zeus) mit dem myk. Königstitel Anax (Ἄναξ), “König, Herr”, angeredet werden [1]; eine Reihe mächtiger Göttinnen (Kybele, Aphrodite, Artemis, Demeter und Persephone, Hekate, Isis) wird seit archa. Zeit als Despoina (Δέσποινα), “Herrin”, angerufen, etwas seltener männliche Götter als Despotes (Δεσπότης) [2;…

Trinity/Doctrine of the Trinity

(11,509 words)

Author(s): Oberdorfer, Bernd | Theobald, Michael | Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Plank, Peter | Küster, Volker | Et al.
[German Version] ¶ I. Terminology To an unusual degree, the theology of the Trinity is characterized by a strained combination of narrative biblical language and speculative philosophical language. The word trinitas was first used by Tertullian ( Prax. 2.1–4), as a translation of Greek τριάς/ triás (orig. “threeness”). To denote the divine unity (God: V, 1), the 4th-century debates showed that the term οὐσία/ ousí (“Essence”; see also Divine essence) borrowed from Greek philosophy was theologically legitimate. The term ὑπόστασις/ hypóstasis (Hypostasis) was sometimes used i…