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Cyril and Methodius

(598 words)

Author(s): Theodorou, Evangelos
[German Version] Cyril (actually Constantine; 826/827, Thessaloniki – Feb 14, 869, Rome) and Methodius (orig. Michael?; c. 815, Thessaloniki – Apr 6, 885, presumably Stare Mesto, Moravia), brothers, Byzantine missionaries to the Slavs, creators of Old Church Slavonic (Ecclesiastical language; Liturgical language) pioneers, and shapers of European and Slavic culture. Constantine received a philosophical education in Constantinople. Michael, initially the senior a…

Joseph the Hymnographer, Saint

(226 words)

Author(s): Theodorou, Evangelos
[German Version] (816, Sicily – Apr 3, 886). Around 828, Joseph fled to the Peloponnese together with his family, because of the danger posed by the Arab Saracens. After becoming a monk and a priest in Thessalonica, he went to Constantinople in 840. On a journey to Rome in 841, where he had been sent to report concerning the Iconoclastic controversy (Veneration of images: VI), he was abducted to Crete by pirates. After his release, he returned to Constantinople where he worked intensely on hymnogr…

Greek Missions

(397 words)

Author(s): Theodorou, Evangelos
[German Version] The Greek Orthodox Church rarely uses the word “mission” (Ἱεραποστολή/ hierapostolí) in the sense of inland mission that encompasses preaching, catechesis, pastoral ministry and diaconal work. The word is usually used for the “missio externa” in the sense of bringing the message of the gospel to the unbaptized (Mission). The Greek Church continues the Byzantine missionary tradition that reached a climax in the missionary work of the Greek apostles to the Slavs Cyril and Methodius. Greek Mis…

Karmiris, Ioannis

(172 words)

Author(s): Theodorou, Evangelos
[German Version] (Dec, 1904, Brallos, central Greece – Jan 5, 1992, Athens). Karmiris studied theology and philosophy at the universities of Athens, Berlin, and Bonn, receiving his doctorate in 1936 and being appointed Privatdozent in 1937. In 1939 he was appointed to the theological faculty of the University of Athens as associate professor of symbolics and the history of dogma; in 1942 he was made full professor and in 1959 professor of dogmatics and Christian ethics. From 1945 to 1960, he was the director of the religion sec…

Greece

(4,584 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Hölscher, Fernande | Theodorou, Evangelos | Begzos, Marios
[German Version] I. Antiquity – II. Church History – III. Theology in Greece I. Antiquity 1. Religion The model of Greek religion is of central importance to theology. In the tradition of the humanistic gymnasium study of the Christian religion even today presupposes knowledge of Greek religion. The Platonic conception in particular (by no means typical of Greek religion) constitutes the model against which the statements of the Bible are measured. G. Kittel's Theolo-¶ gisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament (1960; ET: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 2000) canonized …

Liturgy

(5,012 words)

Author(s): Marshall, Paul V. | Adam, Adolf | Theodorou, Evangelos | Pfatteicher, Philip H. | Berger, Teresa
1. Term and Development 1.1. Term In the pagan world, “liturgy” (Gk. leitourgia, from leı̈tos, “concerning the public,” plus ergon, “work”) originally had an entirely secular use, connoting the service owed to the public by persons of means; in addition, philanthropists took on additional service, also called liturgy. The basic meaning was thus “service for the people.” A secondary, cultic usage developed for the term, perhaps because ultimately the public was to benefit from the service rendered to the gods. This cultic meaning was adopted in the LXX and in Hellenistic Judaism …

Diaconate/Deacon/Deaconess

(3,667 words)

Author(s): Osiek, Carolyn | Albrecht, Ruth | Zentgraf, Martin | Turre, Reinhard | Tiling, Peter v. | Et al.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Church Law – VI. Catholic Church – VII. Orthodox Church I. New Testament Neither “deaconess” nor “diaconate” is an appropriate term for the NT era, and “deacon” should not be used as an exact translation of διάκονος/ diákonos, since the three terms only later underwent an institutionalization that did not exist in NT times. The occurrence of the terminology in the NT can be differentiate…