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Nika revolt

(264 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Revolt against Iustinianus [1] I in Constantinople, AD 13-18. 1. 532, named after the cry of níka (νίκα, ‘be victorious!’) of the rebels in the Hippodrome. The outward reason was the decisive action of the city prefect Eudaemon against rampaging members of the so-called circus parties (‘green’ and ‘blue’, factiones ), the real cause, however, was the strict rule of the emperor, particularly his fiscalism occasioned by expensive war campaigns. The growing unrest among the citizens, further stirred up by oppositi…

Artabasdus

(58 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Artavasděs, AD 742-743). Armenian, brother-in-law of the emperor of Byzantium, Constantine V, who began his rule on 19 June 741. A. revolted against him some time later, supposedly as the defender of image-worship. He was defeated by Constantine in November 743 and overthrown. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography ODB 1, 192 I. Rochow, Kaiser Konstantin V., 1994.

Praepositus

(216 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] A term used during the Roman Imperial Period and in Late Antiquity to refer to leadership functions in a variety of areas of public service [3], in the 4th-6th cents. AD in the expanded form praepositus sacri cubiculi (Greek praipósitos toû eusebestátou koitônos) to refer to the court position of imperial high chamberlain, which was reserved for eunuchs, under whom the chamberlains (see Cubicularius) served. The office of praepositus is first attested under Constantius [2] II for Eusebius [3]. As a confidant of the emperor, the praepositus often played a key role …

Protobestiarios

(28 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πρωτοβεστιάριος/ prōtobestiários, Latin protovestiarius). Overseer of the Byzantine emperor's wardrobe, 5th-15th centuries, eunuch office second to the parakoimṓmenos . ODB 3, 1749. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Euphemia

(163 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] E. Aelia Marciana Wife of the emperor Anthemius, AD 467 elevated to Augusta Only daughter of the emperor Marcianus, married Anthemius [2] in c. AD 453 who was later emperor in the west and had four sons and a daughter with him. In 467 she was elevated to Augusta. Her fate after the execution of her husband in 472 is unknown. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography PLRE 2, 423f. No. 6. P. Grierson, M. Mays, Catalogue of Late Roman Coins, 1992, 260f. [German version] [2] Concubine, later wife of emperor Iustinus I Originally a slave of ‘Barbarian’ origin by the name …

Varangians

(82 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βάραγγοι/ Bárangoi). Scandinavians who from about the early 10th cent. AD arrived in Byzantium by way of the territory of the Kievan Rus (hence also often described as Ῥώς/ Rṓs or Tauroscythae), from the 11th cent. also Anglo-Saxons who served in the Byzantine army (in which they were considered particularly trustworthy), but primarily in the Imperial Guard. Their characteristic weapon was the battle-axe, which earned them the nickname 'axe-bearers' (πελεκυφόροι/ pelekyphóroi). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography S. Franklin, A. Cutler, s. v. Varangia…

Mauricius

(425 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Μαυρίκιος; Mauríkios). Flavius M. Tiberius, East Roman emperor (A.D. 582-602), born in 539 in Arabissus (Cappadocia), died on 27th Nov. 602 in Calchedon. M. replaced the caesar and later emperor Tiberius II in 574 as chief of the guard and was given the command in 577 as magister militum per Orientem to continue the Persian war. After victories near Callinicus in 580 and near Constantina in 581, he was given a triumphal reception in 582 in Constantinople. Tiberius, emperor since 578, affianced him to his daughter Constantina and…

Patrikios

(49 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πατρίκιος/ patríkios, from Lat. patricius). From the time of Constantine [1] I until about the 11th cent., a court title (court titles) in the Roman-Byzantine empire for high officials and officers. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography LMA 6, 1789-1791  ODB 3, 1600  W. Heil, Der konstantinische Patriziat, 1966.

Amorian dynasty

(247 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Sovereign family, ruled the Byzantine Empire for three generations (AD 820-867). Its founder Michael II (820-829) from Amorion in Phrygia asserted himself in 823 against the usurper Thomas the Slav. His son Theopilus (829-842) was the last of the iconoclast emperors (opponents of religious cult images). During his rulership the Arabs achieved a significant success in 838 by taking the fortress Amorion. Under his widow Theodora, who first ruled for her son Michael III (842-867, bor…

Skeuophylax

(49 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (σκευοφύλαξ; skeuophýlax). Clerical post in the Byzantine Church, responsible for liturgical equipment, sanctuaries and ecclesiastical ceremonies, associated with the headship of an office and highly prestigious. At major churches such as Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. Magdalino, A. M. Talbot, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1909f.

Circus factions

(202 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Latin factiones; Greek μέρη/ mérē or, less succinctly, δῆμοι/ dêmoi; see Demos [2] C.). Modern term for the associations or clubs that from the Roman Imperial Period onwards, initially in Rome itself and later also in other cities of the Empire, organised chariot races in hippodromes ( Hippódromos [1]). They were grouped - distinguished from one another by the colours white, red, blue and green - around successful charioteers and in Late Antiquity, primarily in the East of the Roman Empire, occasionally exhibited a clear political orientation (Nika Revolt; Factiones

Sacellarius

(61 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (σακελλάριος/ sakellários). From the 5th cent. AD, a chamberlain at the Roman-Byzantine imperial court (Court D), from the 8th-12th cents. the senior custodian of the state finances (last reference 1196), from 1094 sometimes called mégas logariastḗs . Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. Schreiner, s.v. Finanzwesen, -verwaltung (A. I.f.), LMA 4, 456  P. Magdalino, s.v. Sacellarius, ODB 3, 1828 f.

Belisarius

(854 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βελισάριος; Belisários). B. (born around 500/505 in Germania near  Serdica), distinguished commander under  Iustinianus I. The main source about his life is the historical work ( Bella) which glorifies B. and thus should be read critically, written by  Procopius of Caesarea, who accompanied him on his campaigns until 540. From 529, he was mag. militum per Orientem and, in 528, he assumed leadership in the newly erupted war against the Persians. He was victorious in 530 near Dara, but suffered a crushing defeat in 531 on the Euphrates…

Vitalianus

(170 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Flavius V., Byzantine army leader, who rebelled in AD 513 because of the lack of supplies for his troops, but also because, as a supporter of the Christology of the Synod of Calchedon (Synodos II. D.4.), he was opposed to the monophysite emperor Anastasius [1] I (Monophysitism). When in 514 V. had brought under his control Anastasius' nephew Hypatius [4], who had been sent against him with an army, he consented to free him for a large ransom and, in return for being appointed magister militum per Thracias and the emperor's backing down on the question of belief, to…

Irene

(139 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Εἰρήνη; Eirḗnē). Byzantine empress (AD 797-802; born in Athens c. 752, died on Lesbos in 803), from 768 wife of  Leon IV; after his death in 780 regent for her underage son  Constantinus [8] VI. The Council of Nicaea in 787, convened at her instigation and conducted by Tarasius, the patriarch of her choice, arrived at a moderate reconciliation of the Byzantine image controversy ( Syrian dynasty) in favour of the cult of images. In 790 her son forced her to hand over power, but was deposed…

Mundo

(133 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (so named in Marcellinus Comes) or Μοῦνδος ( Moûndos; Greek sources). Eastern Roman general, born the son of a king (Giesmus?) of the Gepidae before AD 488, died in 536, probably not identical with the Hun M. (PLRE 2, 767f.). Initially he served the Ostrogoth king Theoderic the Great until his death (in 526). In 529 he was appointed magister militum per Illyricum by the Emperor Justinian [1] I. Magister militum per Orientem in 531, he returned to his earlier position in 532. In the Nika Revolt (January 532) he and Belisarius successfully defended Justin…

Vitalis

(47 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Army leader in the war between the Eastern Roman empire and the Goths in Italy, recorded only in Procopius [3] (Goth. 3,10,2) under the name Βιτάλις/ Bitális as magister militum per Illyricum c. AD 539-544. PLRE 3, 1380 f., no. 1 (s. v. Vitalius). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Strategius

(69 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] see Musonianus see Musonianus Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) [German version] [2] Eastern Roman official, 6th cent. AD (Strategios). Eastern Roman official, praef. Augustalis at Alexandria c. AD 518-523, received the title patrikios by 530 at the latest, and was head of the exchequer ( comes sacrarum largitionum) from AD 535 to c. 538. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography PLRE 2, 1034-1036, Nr. 9  Stein, Spätrömische Republik 2, 433, 476f.

Historia Monachorum

(73 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Account, partly from secondary sources, of the journey that some Palestinian monks took to monastery centres in the Nile valley from the Thebaid to the Delta, composed c. AD 395 by one of the travellers, often transmitted together with the Historia Lausiaca of Palladius ( c. 400) (DHGE 24, 681f.). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography A.-J. Festugière, Historia Monachorum in Aegypto, 1961 (Ed.) Lat. Übers. des Rufinus von Aquileia: PL 21, 387-462.

Mundilas

(74 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Μουνδίλας; Moundílas). Eastern Roman officer in the body-guard of Belisarius during the Gothic War, attested between AD 537-539. M. was at Belisarius' side when he was besieged at Rome by the Gothic King Vitigis in 537-538, and he held Milan for nine months in 538 until finally forced to surrender to the Gothic besiegers and taken captive to Ravenna. Thereafter, he vanishes from history (PLRE 3, 901-903). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
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