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Nomophylakes

(473 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(νομοφύλακες / nomophýlakes, ‘guardians of the law’) [German version] I. Classical Period In the Classical Period, nomophýlakes were officials responsible for ensuring compliance with the laws ( nómoi). In Athens, the Areopagus (Areios Pagos) was said to have performed the function of the nomophylakía  until the reforms of Ephialtes [2] (462 BC) ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 3,6; [4,4]; 8,4; 25,2). According to one version in a fragment of Philochorus (FGrH 328 F 64), Ephialtes appointed a college of seven nomophýlakes, who also held some religious offices, but it is more likely…

Mauricius

(425 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Μαυρίκιος; Mauríkios). Flavius M. Tiberius, East Roman emperor (A.D. 582-602), born in 539 in Arabissus (Cappadocia), died on 27th Nov. 602 in Calchedon. M. replaced the caesar and later emperor Tiberius II in 574 as chief of the guard and was given the command in 577 as magister militum per Orientem to continue the Persian war. After victories near Callinicus in 580 and near Constantina in 581, he was given a triumphal reception in 582 in Constantinople. Tiberius, emperor since 578, affianced him to his daughter Constantina and…

Tatianus

(689 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
I. Greek [German version] [I 1] Christian apologist and theologian, 2nd cent. (Τατιανός; Tatianós). Christian apologist and theologian (born c. AD 120). By his own account, T. was from the East Syrian/North Mesopotamian region (Or. 42). His work betrays a knowledge of classical authors relying upon Hellenistic scholarly tradition. His travels brought T. into contact with a variety of the philosophical and religious systems of his period ( i.a. participation in mystery cults, which he fails to define more precisely). In Rome, study of the Bible finally brought hi…

Maximinus

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] M. Daia Roman emperor, AD 305-313 Roman emperor, AD 305-313. The son of Galerius' [5] sister and like Galerius born in Dacia ripensis, possibly in Šarkamen (modern Serbia), he rose from protector to tribunus (Lactant. De mort. pers. 19,6); as Galerius' adoptive son he became Caesar in the change of rulers of 305 (thereafter: Galerius Valerius Maximinus). As co-ruler over the diocese Oriens he continued the persecutions of Christians (Euseb. Hist. eccl. 8,14,9). Like Constantinus [1] not content with the title …

Pelagius

(849 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
(Πελάγιος; Pelágios). [German version] [1] Schoolfellow and friend of Libanius, high-ranking official Fellow student and friend of Libanius, in AD 357; represented his home city Cyrrhus (in Euphratensis) before Constantius [2] II in Italy; in about 382 he was consularis Syriae; he died in 393, a non-Christian (it is to him that Lib. Epist. 1325 and 1334 are addressed). PLRE 1, 686 (P. 1). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Epic poet and historian, 5th cent. Silentiarius ( Silentiarii ), distinguished epic poet and probably also historian…

Hypatos

(145 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] The Republican office of consul (Greek ὕπατος, hýpatos) apparently continued under Augustus and his successors, but de facto, until AD 541, only as an honorary title, that after 541 was reserved exclusively for the ruling (east Roman) emperor (until the 7th cent.). As early as from the 7th cent. hypatos is documented on Byzantine seals as a  court title, that no longer has anything in common with the old office of consul. It is a relatively lowly rank according to the catalogues of ranks of the 9th and 10th cents. and is subordinate to the titles ἀνθύπατος ( anthýpatos, procon…

Constans

(591 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iulius C. Roman Emperor (Augustus), 337-350 AD Roman Emperor, born c. 320 AD, the youngest son of Constantine [1] and Fausta, elevated to Caesar on 25 December 333 and at about the same time betrothed to Olympias, the daughter of  Ablabius [1]. From 9 September 337 Augustus. At a meeting of the brothers in Pannonia (Julian Or. 1,19a) C. received Italy, Illyricum and Africa (Zon. 13,5). He refused to acknowledge the guardianship of his eldest brother Constantine [2] II [1]. Constan…

Urbicius

(110 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Οὐρβίκιος; Ourbíkios). Recorded as an Eastern Roman praepositus sacri cubiculi under Theodosius [3] II from AD 434 and again under Leo [4] I and Zeno. He did encourage the usurper Basiliscus against Zeno in 475, but in 476 contributed to his overthrow. He was close to Verina, the widow of Leo I, and in 481 probably also supported a conspiracy against Illus, who had arrested her. He is last recorded as an advocate of the election of the emperor Anastasius [1] I in 491 and as a sponsor of pious foundations in Edessa [2] and in the Holy Land in 504/5. PLRE 2, 1188-1190. Tinnefeld, Fr…

Kouropalates

(73 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (κουροπαλάτης; kouropalátēs; from Lat. cura palatii). Initially a term for an official responsible for palace business, used for the first time by Justinianus [1] I as a higher court title for his successor Iustinus [4] II. In the period following it was mainly reserved for members of the imperial family or for foreign princes. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography ODB 2,1157 R. Guilland, Titres et fonctions de l'Empire byzantin, 1976, III.

Circus factions

(202 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Latin factiones; Greek μέρη/ mérē or, less succinctly, δῆμοι/ dêmoi; see Demos [2] C.). Modern term for the associations or clubs that from the Roman Imperial Period onwards, initially in Rome itself and later also in other cities of the Empire, organised chariot races in hippodromes ( Hippódromos [1]). They were grouped - distinguished from one another by the colours white, red, blue and green - around successful charioteers and in Late Antiquity, primarily in the East of the Roman Empire, occasionally exhibited a clear political orientation (Nika Revolt; Factiones

Spatharios

(65 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Σπαθάριος/ Spathários, ‘sword-bearer’). From the 5th to the 12th cent. AD a member of a body of chamberlains (eunuchs) at the Roman-Byzantine Imperial Court, from about the 8th cent. subordinate to a prōtospathários im Senatorenrang of senatorial rank. From the 10th cent. there is also evidence of non-eunuchs as prōtospathárioi. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s. v. Proto-S., ODB 3, 1748; s. v. S., 1935 f.

Scholasticus

(151 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(σχολαστικός/ scholastikós). [German version] [1] Advocate in Late Antiquity In Roman procedural law of Late Antiquity a scholasticus (literally: someone 'schooled') is the advocate of a party, a late successor to the causidicus , with a certain amount of knowledge of formal rhetoric and law. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Kaser, K. Hackl, Das römische Zivilprozeßrecht, 21996, 563. [German version] [2] Palace official in Constantinople, from 422 (in Latin sources Scholasticus or Scholasticius), a palace official in Constantinople, first recorded i…

Theophilus

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Θεόφιλος; Theóphilos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, 4th cent. BC Comic poet of the 4th cent. BC; victor at the Dionysia of 329 [1. test.2], fourth there in 311 with his Pankratiastḗs [2.190, 200]. T. was of the declining Middle and the incipient New Comedy [I G]. Of the nine known titles, two - Νεοπτόλεμος ( Neoptólemos, 'Neoptolemus'), Προιτίδες ( Proitídes, 'The daughters of Proitus') - are mythological plays, the others deal with everyday material. In the Ἐπίδημοι ( Epídēmoi, 'The Pilgrims'), a slave considers whether to run away from his kind master (fr. 1); in the Φίλαυλος ( Phílaul…

Sebastos

(59 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Σεβαστός/ Sebastós). Originally a Greek equivalent for the Latin title Augustus, was not introduced as a title in the Byzantine court until the 11th century AD; after 1081 it was conferred - also in combinations such as sebastokrátōr - by the Comnenian emperors predominantly on family members. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1862 f.

Ceremony

(3,932 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Winterling, Aloys (Bielefeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] I. Mesopotamia In contrast with cultic  rituals, the secular ceremonies of Mesopotamia have up to now rarely been the subject of academic research. On the whole, it has to be assumed that individual and communal life in the societies of the Ancient Orient in general and that of the  ruler in particular were dominated by numerous rules, resulting in more or less standardized patterns of behaviour. The reconstruction of such non-cultic ceremonies is largely dependent on secondary refe…

Phocas

(521 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Φωκᾶς; Phōkâs). [German version] [1] Martyr around AD 305 Martyr († around AD 305 in Sinope; Fest: 22. 9.). He lived in Sinope as a gardener and suffered martyrdom by beheading. As early as the 4th cent. a church is said to have existed above his grave in Sinope. From there his cult spread throughout the entire Mediterranean area. He is depicted as a gardener. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henschenius et al. (eds.), Acta sanctorum, vols. 1ff., 1643ff.; 6, 293-299; 7.3, 629-632  PG 60, 36ff. [German version] [2] P. Diaconus Poet A poet of unknown date who is …

Philippicus Bardanes

(113 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Φιλιππικὸς Βαρδάνης/ Philippikòs Bardánēs). Byzantine emperor (November AD 711 -June 713). Of an Armenian family at Constantinople (hence his Armenian name Bardanes), d. at Constantinople in 714/5. While participating in an expedition against Cherson, he was proclaimed emperor there under the Greek name P.B. as a rival to Iustinianus [3] II, who, while attempting to stall him on his way to Constantinople, was killed. As an adherent to Monotheletism, P.B. revoked the rulings of the 680/1 Council of Co…

Protostrator

(59 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πρωτοστράτωρ; prōtostrátōr). Byzantine term, 8th-15th cents. AD, for the superintendent of the imperial grooms ('marshal'), who accompanied the emperor when riding. It was an influential position close to the emperor and was considered favourable for further advancement. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography R. Guilland, Recherches sur les institutions byzantines, vol. 1, 1967, 478-497  ODB 3, 1748 f.

Sacellarius

(61 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (σακελλάριος/ sakellários). From the 5th cent. AD, a chamberlain at the Roman-Byzantine imperial court (Court D), from the 8th-12th cents. the senior custodian of the state finances (last reference 1196), from 1094 sometimes called mégas logariastḗs . Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. Schreiner, s.v. Finanzwesen, -verwaltung (A. I.f.), LMA 4, 456  P. Magdalino, s.v. Sacellarius, ODB 3, 1828 f.

Staurakios

(121 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Byzantine emperor, 9th cent. Byzantine emperor (AD 811), son of Nikephoros [2] I, seriously wounded in the battle against the Bulgarian Khan Krum, in which his father fell. After a short period of recognition as successor to the throne, he was succeeded by Michael [3] I. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. A. Hollingsworth, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1945 f. [German version] [2] Eunuch, 8th cent. AD Eunuch in the rank of a πατρίκιος/ patríkios (Patrikios), from AD 781 λογοθέτης τοῦ δρόμου/ logothétēs toû drómou (Logothetes), victorious over the Slavs in Greece i…
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