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Skeuophylax

(49 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (σκευοφύλαξ; skeuophýlax). Clerical post in the Byzantine Church, responsible for liturgical equipment, sanctuaries and ecclesiastical ceremonies, associated with the headship of an office and highly prestigious. At major churches such as Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. Magdalino, A. M. Talbot, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1909f.

Circus factions

(202 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Latin factiones; Greek μέρη/ mérē or, less succinctly, δῆμοι/ dêmoi; see Demos [2] C.). Modern term for the associations or clubs that from the Roman Imperial Period onwards, initially in Rome itself and later also in other cities of the Empire, organised chariot races in hippodromes ( Hippódromos [1]). They were grouped - distinguished from one another by the colours white, red, blue and green - around successful charioteers and in Late Antiquity, primarily in the East of the Roman Empire, occasionally exhibited a clear political orientation (Nika Revolt; Factiones

Sacellarius

(61 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (σακελλάριος/ sakellários). From the 5th cent. AD, a chamberlain at the Roman-Byzantine imperial court (Court D), from the 8th-12th cents. the senior custodian of the state finances (last reference 1196), from 1094 sometimes called mégas logariastḗs . Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. Schreiner, s.v. Finanzwesen, -verwaltung (A. I.f.), LMA 4, 456  P. Magdalino, s.v. Sacellarius, ODB 3, 1828 f.

Belisarius

(854 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βελισάριος; Belisários). B. (born around 500/505 in Germania near  Serdica), distinguished commander under  Iustinianus I. The main source about his life is the historical work ( Bella) which glorifies B. and thus should be read critically, written by  Procopius of Caesarea, who accompanied him on his campaigns until 540. From 529, he was mag. militum per Orientem and, in 528, he assumed leadership in the newly erupted war against the Persians. He was victorious in 530 near Dara, but suffered a crushing defeat in 531 on the Euphrates…

Nikiu

(56 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Mētrópolis (μητρόπολις) in the Nile Delta in Lower Egypt; in AD 640, it was defended by the dux Domentianus who was attacked by Amr, the commander of the Arabian-Islamic troops, in the spring of 641. He fled and his army was wiped out at N. PLRE 3, 408f. (Domentianus). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Marsus

(51 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Isaurian, East Roman general, honorary consul AD 484; fought against the Vandals in 468; he followed Illus to Antioch in 481, and died in 484 having taken part in Illus' uprising against Emperor Zeno. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography PLRE 2, 728f. Nr. 2 Stein, Spätröm. R. 1, 577f.

Berengarius

(87 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] B.I, born in AD 850/53, margrave of Friaul, grandson of Louis the Pious. Following Charles III's deposition in Tribur by Arnulf of Carinthia, B.I was installed as King of Italy in January of 888 in Pavia, but struggled for years with rivals (Wido and Lambert of Spoleto; Louis of Provence). In 915, he was crowned emperor by the Pope in agreement with Byzantium; in 924 he was murdered in Verona. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography LMA 1, 1933 R. Hiestand, Byzanz und das Regnum Italicum, 1964

Silentiarii

(109 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (σιλεντιάριοι; silentiárioi). Guards at the Imperial Roman courts instituted by Constantine (Constantinus [1]  I) that were named after the ceremonial silence surrounding the emperor. They were subordinate to the imperial chamberlain ( praepositus sacri cubiculi). From AD 437, 30 silentiarii are documented under three decuriones at the court of Constantinople. Their rank within the court hierarchy continued to rise until the 6th cent. after which their importance decreased. The last of the silentiarii are mentioned in sources from as late as the 12th cent. Tinnef…

Superindictio

(70 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] One of several terms (others are e.g. adscriptio, extraordinaria munera) for special taxes levied by imperial decree in the Roman and Byzantine Empires to offset extraordinary expenses, e.g. in times of crisis, either from all or only from rich landowners. As unanticipated burdens, they were universally detested. Taxes Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography J. Karayannopulos, Das Finanzwesen des frühbyzantinischen Staates, 1958, 138-141  N. Oikonomides, s.v. Secondary Taxes, ODB 3, 1863f.

Zoe

(232 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Ζωή; Zōḗ). Empress regnant of Byzantium 21 March - 12 June AD 1042 (born 978), as the daughter of Constantinus [10] VIII (1025-1028) a descendant of the Macedonian dynasty, therefore she also legitimated the emperorship of her three husbands [2; 4]. She was presumably the bride from Byzantium intended for Otto III who did not arrive in Italy until shortly after his death on 24 January 1002. By having her first husband Romanos [4] III, imposed on her by her dying father in 1028, mu…

Sabbatius

(32 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Σαββάτιος/ Sabbátios). Father of the emperor Iustinianus [1] I, Illyrian, mentioned only in passing in Procop. Arc. 12,18 and Theophanes p. 183,9 de Boor. PLRE 2, 966. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Nika revolt

(264 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Revolt against Iustinianus [1] I in Constantinople, AD 13-18. 1. 532, named after the cry of níka (νίκα, ‘be victorious!’) of the rebels in the Hippodrome. The outward reason was the decisive action of the city prefect Eudaemon against rampaging members of the so-called circus parties (‘green’ and ‘blue’, factiones ), the real cause, however, was the strict rule of the emperor, particularly his fiscalism occasioned by expensive war campaigns. The growing unrest among the citizens, further stirred up by oppositi…

Artabasdus

(58 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Artavasděs, AD 742-743). Armenian, brother-in-law of the emperor of Byzantium, Constantine V, who began his rule on 19 June 741. A. revolted against him some time later, supposedly as the defender of image-worship. He was defeated by Constantine in November 743 and overthrown. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography ODB 1, 192 I. Rochow, Kaiser Konstantin V., 1994.

Praepositus

(216 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] A term used during the Roman Imperial Period and in Late Antiquity to refer to leadership functions in a variety of areas of public service [3], in the 4th-6th cents. AD in the expanded form praepositus sacri cubiculi (Greek praipósitos toû eusebestátou koitônos) to refer to the court position of imperial high chamberlain, which was reserved for eunuchs, under whom the chamberlains (see Cubicularius) served. The office of praepositus is first attested under Constantius [2] II for Eusebius [3]. As a confidant of the emperor, the praepositus often played a key role …

Protobestiarios

(28 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πρωτοβεστιάριος/ prōtobestiários, Latin protovestiarius). Overseer of the Byzantine emperor's wardrobe, 5th-15th centuries, eunuch office second to the parakoimṓmenos . ODB 3, 1749. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Euphemia

(163 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] E. Aelia Marciana Wife of the emperor Anthemius, AD 467 elevated to Augusta Only daughter of the emperor Marcianus, married Anthemius [2] in c. AD 453 who was later emperor in the west and had four sons and a daughter with him. In 467 she was elevated to Augusta. Her fate after the execution of her husband in 472 is unknown. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography PLRE 2, 423f. No. 6. P. Grierson, M. Mays, Catalogue of Late Roman Coins, 1992, 260f. [German version] [2] Concubine, later wife of emperor Iustinus I Originally a slave of ‘Barbarian’ origin by the name …

Vitalianus

(170 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Flavius V., Byzantine army leader, who rebelled in AD 513 because of the lack of supplies for his troops, but also because, as a supporter of the Christology of the Synod of Calchedon (Synodos II. D.4.), he was opposed to the monophysite emperor Anastasius [1] I (Monophysitism). When in 514 V. had brought under his control Anastasius' nephew Hypatius [4], who had been sent against him with an army, he consented to free him for a large ransom and, in return for being appointed magister militum per Thracias and the emperor's backing down on the question of belief, to…

Irene

(139 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Εἰρήνη; Eirḗnē). Byzantine empress (AD 797-802; born in Athens c. 752, died on Lesbos in 803), from 768 wife of  Leon IV; after his death in 780 regent for her underage son  Constantinus [8] VI. The Council of Nicaea in 787, convened at her instigation and conducted by Tarasius, the patriarch of her choice, arrived at a moderate reconciliation of the Byzantine image controversy ( Syrian dynasty) in favour of the cult of images. In 790 her son forced her to hand over power, but was deposed…

Mundo

(133 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (so named in Marcellinus Comes) or Μοῦνδος ( Moûndos; Greek sources). Eastern Roman general, born the son of a king (Giesmus?) of the Gepidae before AD 488, died in 536, probably not identical with the Hun M. (PLRE 2, 767f.). Initially he served the Ostrogoth king Theoderic the Great until his death (in 526). In 529 he was appointed magister militum per Illyricum by the Emperor Justinian [1] I. Magister militum per Orientem in 531, he returned to his earlier position in 532. In the Nika Revolt (January 532) he and Belisarius successfully defended Justin…

Vitalis

(47 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Army leader in the war between the Eastern Roman empire and the Goths in Italy, recorded only in Procopius [3] (Goth. 3,10,2) under the name Βιτάλις/ Bitális as magister militum per Illyricum c. AD 539-544. PLRE 3, 1380 f., no. 1 (s. v. Vitalius). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
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