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Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Habitancum

(126 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman camp near modern Risingham (Northumberland), one of the outposts north of Hadrian's Wall in the Rede valley. Little is known about the early phases of occupation; there is no evidence that the fort was built at the same time as Hadrian's boundary wall. A camp certainly existed in the 140s; in the Severan period it was a major base for the occupation of the north. The garrison of H. was the Cohors IIII Gallorum in the 2nd cent . and the cohors I Vangionum in the 3rd cent., accompanied by a numerus exploratorum and a vexillatio Raetorum Gaesatorum. Inside the camp there is…

Thule

(202 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Θούλη/ Thoúlē). T. was a concept, occasionally a literary term (Antonius [3]), less often a geographical location. The idea of a country in the northern Ocean, far to the north of Britannia, can be found in Verg. G. 1,30 and almost certainly refers to an account by Pytheas [4]. Strabo (1,4,2-5; 2,4,1; 2,5,8; 4,5,5) was the first geographer to use the place name T., but he does not say anything about its geographical location. Tac. Agr. 10 and Ptol. 2,3,32 applied T. to the Shetlan…

Mona

(231 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Island off the coast of north Wales, modern Anglesey, one of the most fertile regions of western Britain. M. means ‘high island’ in Celtic, while in Welsh, the island is called Mam Cymru, ‘Mother of Wales’. In antiquity, M. was important for supplying the mountainous regions of Wales with provisions and ores, esp. copper. Perhaps the Ordovices were the inhabitants of M. in the Iron Age and during Roman rule. The importance of M. in the later Iron Age is demonstrated by the great c…

Regni

(116 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Regini). Celtic tribe, who settled in the area of Hampshire and West Sussex and was part of the Kingdom of Commius (mid 1st cent. BC) and of Cogidubnus (one cent. later). The main city was Noviomagus (present-day Chichester), home to a temple of Neptune and Minerva in the 1st cent. AD [1. 91]. Located near Noviomagus and 1,6 km west of Chichester was the estate of Fishbourne, probably a governor's residence from the Flavian Period (columns, mosaics, wall paintings) [2]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions of…

Uxellodunum

(155 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] Oppidum in the territory of the Cadurci This item can be found on the following maps: Celts | Oppidum Oppidum in the territory of the  Cadurci (Caes. Gall. 8,32,2) in Aquitania, conquered by Caesar in 51 BC (Caes. Gall. 8,39-44). The location of  U. is disputed among the following places: l'Impernal de Luzech [2. 109-111], le Puy d'Issolu near Vayrac [2. 133-136], Murcens-Cras [1], Capdenac. Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy) Bibliography 1 O. Buchsenschutz, G. Mercadier, Recherche sur l'oppidum de Murcens-Cras, in: Aquitania 7, 1989, 25-51 2 M. I. Labrousse…

Promunturium, Promontorium

(612 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
('promontory', 'cape'). [German version] [1] Promontorium Cantium Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine (τὸ Κάντιον). Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine; a landmark for seamen and geographers, modern South Foreland/Kent ( cf. Caes. B Gall. 5,13,1; 14,1; 22,1; Diod. Sic. 5,21,3; Str. 1,4,3; 4,3,3; 5,1). Cantium probably means 'corner' in Celtic [1]. The exposed location in the far south-east of the island gave its name to the Cantiaci, and the name was also applied to the ki…

Luguvallium

(293 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The Roman military facilities and the city of L., modern Carlisle, form one of the most important complexes on the northern border of Britannia. Most phases in the history of L. are poorly documented, and the findings of many of the most recent excavations have not yet been published. The earliest Roman site is a fort at the crossing of the river Eden (probably AD 78/9) [1; 5]. This was demolished shortly after AD 100 and rebuilt at another location (until AD 160). A series of sto…

Venta Silurum

(156 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Town in South Wales, modern Caerwent. After the defeat of the Silures by the Roman governor Frontinus c. AD 74-76 (Tac. Agr. 17,3) VS developed into a centre of civilian settlement in the Vale of Glamorgan. VS became the capital, probably under Hadrian, of the civitas of the Silures (cf. [1]). The construction of public buildings (forum, basilica, temple) began after 125. In the late 2nd cent. AD VS was fortified with earthworks. In late Antiquity VS flourished economically (construction of numerous private houses in stone)…

Pons

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Roads and bridges, construction of see Roads and bridges, construction of Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Voting bridge The term pons (generally in the plural form of pontes) was also used for the narrow 'voting bridges' in Rome which members of the comitia had to cross on the way to cast their votes. It is argued that the saying Sexagenarios de ponte (deicere) with its incitement to throw sixty-year olds from the bridge (Cic. Rosc. Am. 100; Fest. 452; Macrob. Sat. 1,5,10) stemmed from the demand by younger voters to bar older o…

Magi

(116 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Fort in north-western Britannia (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,14; 40,49) with a numerus Pacensium as a garrison (4th cent. AD). Site contentious but an altar (CIL VII 1291) built by vik(ani) Mag... in Old Carlisle refers to it. It is, however, conceivable that M. was the fort in Burrow Walls and Maglona was the one in Old Carlisle (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,13; 40,29). Both forts were held right through to the 4th cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography E. Birley, The Roman Fort and Settlement at Old Carlisle, in: Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeolog…

Brigantes

(120 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The B. settled in northern England, from the Tyne-Solway isthmus to Derbyshire. In the Iron Age the B. lived in scattered communities; there were few hill-forts or large settlements. Their queen Cartimandua entered into a treaty relationship with Rome before AD 50 but lost the support of her nobles and had to appeal for Roman assistance, before the leadership was stripped from her in c. AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 3,45). The B. were defeated by Q. Petilius Cerealis (AD 71-74) and Cn. Julius Agricola (AD 77-78) and organized as a civitas with Isurium Brigantum (now Aldborough) as…

Portus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Artificially extended harbour complex near Ostia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre An artificial harbour complex, created under the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) to extend the harbour of Ostia (with plan) and enlarged under Trajan (AD 98-117), c. 3 km northwest of Ostia. The Claudian harbour basin ( c. 80 hectares) was protected from the sea by a mole structure (but not actually safe; in AD 62 almost 200 ships went down in a storm: Tac. Ann. 15,18) and marked by a lighthouse (cf. plan: 1) (according to Suet. C…

Tamesa

(54 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Tamesis). River in southeastern Britain, modern Thames (Caes. Gall. 5,11,8; Tac. Ann. 14,32; Cass. Dio 40,3,1; 60,20 f.; 62,1). At the mouth of the T., an excellent natural harbour, was Londinium (modern London). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography M. Förster, Der Flußname Themse, 1942 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 466.

Camulodunum

(222 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pertinax | Britannia | Britannia The largest iron age oppidum in Britannia was situated on the lower reaches of the river Colne in Essex; under the rule of kings Dubnovellaunus and  Cunobellinus [1]. C., modern Colchester, developed. In its heyday (from about AD 10 to 40), the oppidum comprised 30 km2 within a system of protective dykes. As an important centre of power, C. attracted the import of luxury goods from Gaul and Italy. A richly decorated r…

Caledonii

(196 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Ancient authors applied the name C. variously: either to the inhabitants of Scotland north of a line from the Forth to the Clyde (Tac. Agr. 25), or to a tribe in the region of the Great Glen (Ptol. 2,3,8), or to a group of tribes in northern Scotland (Cass. Dio 76,12). The reference to Caledonia in Tac. Agr. 27 and to silvae Caledoniae in Plin. HN 4,102 suggests that the C. settled across a large area of eastern Scotland. Almost unknown prior to the Roman invasion, they offered fierce resistance to it, before they were decisively defeated by…

Britannia

(1,099 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] A. Name Originally the island was known as Albion (Avien. Ora maritima 108f. probably goes back to Pytheas, c. 325 BC). In the oldest Greek sources, B. appears as Βρεταννικαὶ νῆσοι ( Bretannikaì nêsoi) and the inhabitants as Βρεττανοί ( Brettanoí, Str. 2,1,18; 2,5,12). In Latin authors the form B. is common from the 1st cent. BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,7ff.; 4,20ff.; 5,2ff.; Cic. Fam. 7,6ff.). The general term for the island was coined by classical authors [1]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) [German version] B. Rome and Britannia The first contacts between B. and the Mediterra…

South Cadbury

(53 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Iron Age hill fort in Somerset, used for a short time in the middle of the 1st century AD by the Roman army. Resettled and fortified in the late 5th century. Ceramics were imported from the Mediterranean, other goods from Gaul. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography L. Alcock, Cadbury Castle, 1995.

Vinovia

(131 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Οὐιννοούιον/ Ouinnooúion). A Roman fort in Binchester on the important Roman road from Eboracum (modern York) to Hadrian's Wall (Ptol. 2,3,16; [1. 1036]; Limes II), where it crossed the Vedra (modern Wear), 12 km to the south of Durham. V. was founded in the Flavian period (AD 69-96) probably under Cn. Iulius [II 3] Agricola, abandoned under Hadrian, but used again in the late Antonine period and then from the 3rd cent. onwards. An extensive vicus developed outside the fort (with long narrow business premises [2. 111, 299; 3. 253]). Stones from V. were used to b…

Deva

(180 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Legio | Limes | Limes | Britannia Modern Chester. Legionary camp, originally set up for the legio II Adiutrix in c. AD 75 [1] as a wooden/earthen fort, with baths (stone); water pipes of lead date the completion to AD 79. The legio XX Valeria Victrix took over the camp in c. AD 86/7. The rebuilding in stone began in c. AD 102. A large amphitheatre situated outside the walls was constructed in the 2nd cent. [2]. West of the camp on the bank of the Dee is a mooring place. The fortress wall was renovated …
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