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Venta Silurum

(156 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Town in South Wales, modern Caerwent. After the defeat of the Silures by the Roman governor Frontinus c. AD 74-76 (Tac. Agr. 17,3) VS developed into a centre of civilian settlement in the Vale of Glamorgan. VS became the capital, probably under Hadrian, of the civitas of the Silures (cf. [1]). The construction of public buildings (forum, basilica, temple) began after 125. In the late 2nd cent. AD VS was fortified with earthworks. In late Antiquity VS flourished economically (construction of numerous private houses in stone)…

Catuvellauni

(83 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Powerful tribe in Britannia north of the lower Thames, who most likely had links with the Gallic Catualauni. Their most influential rulers were Tasciovanus and his son  Cunobellinus [1]. Following the conquest of Britannia by Claudius (Cass. Dio 60,20,2), the C. were organized as a civitas with  Verulamium as its centre (Tac. Ann. 14,33). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 S. S. Frere, Britannia, 31987, 44f. S. S. Frere, Verulamium Excavations 1, 1972 R. E. M. and T. V. Wheeler, Verulamium, 1936 K. Branigan, The C., 1985.

Vindolanda

(108 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman fort about 40 km to the west of Newcastle upon Tyne, modern Chesterholm, founded in the Flavian period (AD 69-96) [1]. The fort was renovated under Hadrian; Hadrian's Wall runs 3 km to the north of it (Limes II, with map). The fort was also renovated a century later. A large vicus developed to the west of it in the 2nd and 3rd cents. [2. 1700; 3]. The most significant find from V. is the Vindolanda Writing Tablets. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 P. Bidwell, The Roman Fort of V. at Chesterholm, 1985 2 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions …

Segontium

(140 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] One of the main forts of the Roman occupation of North Wales [1], modern Caernarfon at the southwestern end of the Menai Strait. The first building phase dates from the governorship of Iulius [II 3] Agricola ( c. 77/8 AD). The living quarters exhibit at least three building phases from the early 2nd century AD onwards. Rebuilding in stone took place under Hadrianus (117-138). The 2nd cent. garrison was evidently small. One of the main buildings from the Antonine period was probably the officium of a procurator [2]. After being destroyed and rebuilt the fort was he…

Calleva Atrebatum

(135 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Britannia | Britannia (modern Silchester). An Iron Age oppidum, main centre of the Atrebates [2], it developed from 100 BC into a significant political centre. Through its links with  Commius, the settlement boomed in the mid 1st cent. BC. It is likely that, after AD 43, Calleva Atrebatum (CA) was incorporated into Cogidubnus' empire. The early Roman town was established within the Iron Age fortifications [1]. From its very beginnings, CA's developmen…

Scotti

(80 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ( Scoti, 'Scots'). A Celtic people - wild and bellicose according to Roman reports - which originally settled in the north of Hibernia (Ireland) (Oros. 1,2,81 f.). In the late 4th cent. AD, groups of them ferried across to Britannia (Amm. 18,2,3; 26,4,5; 27,8,1; 29,4,7). The S. had been Christianised before AD 431 in Hibernia by the deacon Palladius (Prosp. 1301) and came to develop a very active monastery culture. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography G. and A. Ritchie, Scotland, 1985.

Deva

(180 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Legio | Limes | Limes | Britannia Modern Chester. Legionary camp, originally set up for the legio II Adiutrix in c. AD 75 [1] as a wooden/earthen fort, with baths (stone); water pipes of lead date the completion to AD 79. The legio XX Valeria Victrix took over the camp in c. AD 86/7. The rebuilding in stone began in c. AD 102. A large amphitheatre situated outside the walls was constructed in the 2nd cent. [2]. West of the camp on the bank of the Dee is a mooring place. The fortress wall was renovated …

Cantiaci

(107 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Tribe in the area of Kent and East Sussex. Its name is derived from the region of Cantium. Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1 tells of four indigenous kings; this account allows the conclusion that there were a number of sub-tribes. The tribal centre was  Durovernum, also important was Durobrivae (modern Rochester). Numerous villae were built in C. in the early Imperial Age, especially in eastern and southern Kent. In the 3rd cent.,  Rutupiae,  Dubrae, Regulbium (modern Reculver) and  Portus Lemanae (modern Lympne) were garrisons of the classis Britannica. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bib…

Mons Graupius

(294 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The Roman invasion of eastern Scotland under Iulius [II 3] Agricola brought Roman troops across the isthmus between the Forth and Clyde in AD 82 or 83 (Tac. Agr. 29,2-38,2; [1]). In contrast to the tribes of southern Scotland, the Caledonii to the north of the isthmus were very much more dangerous opponents. They were led against the Romans by Calgacus, who had probably been elected commander by the clans. He first evaded the legions, but, when the Roman advance made progress acro…

Margidunum

(184 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] On the great Roman road of the Fosse Way between Lincoln and Leicester lay various Roman settlements; one of the largest was M., near East Bridgeford, Nottinghamshire. Originally a Roman fort (late Claudian/early Neronian period), abandoned in around AD 70 [1; 2]. M. probably served as a military supply base, since the local iron ore was intensively smelted. After the end of the military occupation, the civilian settlement continued on both sides of the Fosse Way, possibly in conjunction with a mansio (or mutatio). Residential and other buildings were modest. Th…

Luguvallium

(293 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The Roman military facilities and the city of L., modern Carlisle, form one of the most important complexes on the northern border of Britannia. Most phases in the history of L. are poorly documented, and the findings of many of the most recent excavations have not yet been published. The earliest Roman site is a fort at the crossing of the river Eden (probably AD 78/9) [1; 5]. This was demolished shortly after AD 100 and rebuilt at another location (until AD 160). A series of sto…

Durovernum

(150 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Britannia | Britannia Modern Canterbury; arose in the form of an Iron Age oppidum on the Stour in the late 1st cent. BC. The Roman city developed shortly after AD 43, perhaps revealing the pre-Roman character of the tribes of Cantion (Kent). Public buildings were erected in the late 1st and early 2nd cents. A large theatre was added in the late 2nd cent. [1]; defensive works were built in the late 3rd cent. An extra muros Christian church, probably from the 4th cent., survived until c. AD 700 (Bede, Hist. Eccl. 1,26). A…

Vinovia

(131 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Οὐιννοούιον/ Ouinnooúion). A Roman fort in Binchester on the important Roman road from Eboracum (modern York) to Hadrian's Wall (Ptol. 2,3,16; [1. 1036]; Limes II), where it crossed the Vedra (modern Wear), 12 km to the south of Durham. V. was founded in the Flavian period (AD 69-96) probably under Cn. Iulius [II 3] Agricola, abandoned under Hadrian, but used again in the late Antonine period and then from the 3rd cent. onwards. An extensive vicus developed outside the fort (with long narrow business premises [2. 111, 299; 3. 253]). Stones from V. were used to b…

Mamucium

(101 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman fort near Manchester, on the road from Deva to Eboracum, first occupied in the Flavian period (AD 69-96), probably under Cn. Iulius [II 3] Agricola. Renovated in the early 2nd cent. [1]. An inscription on a Severan building suggests a further extension in the 3rd cent. [2. 581]. In the 4th cent., M. gained considerable strategic importance, before being abandoned after AD 370. A large vicus surrounded the fort. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 G. D. B. Jones, S. Grealey, Roman Manchester, 1974 2 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wight, The Roman Inscriptions of Brita…

Magnae

(170 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (or Magni). Roman fort on Hadrian's Wall in northern England (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,43; Geogr. Rav. 107,11), probably dating to the Flavian period (AD 69-96), modern Carvoran, identified because of epigraphical evidence ( numerus Magn(c)es(ium) [1. 1825]). In the early 2nd cent., before M. became part of the Hadrianic Limes after AD 122, it may have been part of Trajan's border line [2. 192-196]. The fort was not integrated into the vallum as was usually the case, but remained situated to the south. Under Hadrian and after him, the cohors I Hamiorum was stationed there unt…

Eboracum

(290 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Rome | Britannia (Today York). With its strategically favourable location in the heart of the Vale of York, E. presented itself to the Romans as a base for their military control of northern Britannia. The earliest garrison was stationed in E. under Q. Petilius Cerealis in AD 71/74 [1]. The legionary camp ( legio IX Hispana) was a wood-earth fort of the 70s; the reconstruction in stone took place in the early 2nd cent. The legio VI Victrix replaced the legio I…

Isca Silurum

(154 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Legio | Limes | Limes | Britannia Roman legionary camp set up c. AD 74 in Britannia, modern Caerleon (South Wales). The legio II Augusta was stationed there [1; 2]. In about AD 100 the fortifications were renewed in stone, followed by the internal buildings. An amphitheatre has been excavated outside the walls of the camp and likewise wharf constructions on the banks of the Usk [3; 4]. After 300 the garrison was reduced and in the 4th cent. completely withdrawn. From the 2nd cent. an extensive vicus developed. Todd, Malcolm (Exe…

Tintagel

(81 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] A headland on the northern coast of Cornwall, for a long time connected with King Arthur and his court. Limited settlement in the late Roman period was followed by more intensive settlement from the late 5th cent. AD onwards with many imports from the eastern Mediterranean, particularly amphorae and fine pottery. At that time T. was evidently the residence of the kings of the Dumnonii. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography C. Thomas, The Book of T.: Arthur and Archaeology, 1993.

Brigantes

(107 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] Die B. siedelten in Nordengland von der Landenge Tyne-Solway bis Derbyshire. In der Eisenzeit lebten die B. verstreut; hill-forts und große Ansiedlungen gab es wenige. Ihre Königin Cartimandua ging vor 50 n.Chr. Vertragsbeziehungen mit Rom ein, verlor aber die Unterstützung ihrer Adligen und mußte röm. Hilfe anfordern, bevor ihr ca. 69 n.Chr. die Herrschaft entzogen wurde (Tac. hist. 3,45). Die B. wurden von Q. Petilius Cerealis (71-74 n.Chr.) und Cn. Iulius Agricola (77-78 n.Chr.) besiegt und als civitas mit Zentrum Isurium Brigantum (h. Aldborough) orga…

Ictis

(127 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] Bei Ebbe mit dem Festland verbundene brit. Insel, auf der nach Diod. 5,22,2 die Bewohner von Belerion (Land's End in SW-Britannien) Zinn aus eigenen Minen vertrieben - dies waren die Anfänge des Zinnhandels zw. Britannia und dem Mittelmeerraum. Die Lokalisierung von I. wird immer noch diskutiert. Zur Wahl stehen St. Michael's Mount in der Mounts Bay/ Cornwall [1. 176], bei Ebbe mit dem Festland verbunden, und Mount Batten im Plymouth Sound/Devon, wo Handelsbeziehungen mit dem Kon…
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