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Restoration Movements

(3,377 words)

Author(s): Toulouse, Mark G.
1. In Great Britain In the days since the Protestant Reformation began in Europe, many individuals and groups have laid claim to capturing the essence of primitive Christianity. This emphasis on the primitive church, sometimes called primitivism, sometimes called the desire for restitution, but mostly referred to in literature as the hope for a “restoration” of ancient Christianity, took root in emerging Protestant soil. Michael Servetus (ca. 1511–53), for example, put to death by John Calvin, published a book on the need to restore Christianity because of it…

Social Gospel

(984 words)

Author(s): Toulouse, Mark G.
[German Version] is a loosely organized movement that developed among Protestants in the United States in the late-19th century. Precise dates for the movement’s beginning and ending are not easily identified. The Social Gospel combined traditional evangelical piety with a new call for the redemption of the social order. Impulses that led to the movement are found in at least four distinct sources: 1. Social crises external to the church, rooted in the economic struggles of a modern industrial soc…


(283 words)

Author(s): Toulouse, Mark G.
[English Version] Rauschenbusch, Walter (4.10.1861 Rochester, NY – 25.7.1918 ebd.), Pastor, Theologiedozent und führender Theologe der Social Gospel-Bewegung. R. schloß sein Studium 1884 an der Universität Rochester und 1886 am theol. Seminar von Rochester ab. R. nahm dabei die krit. Tendenzen der Schriften A. Ritschls und A.v. Harnacks auf. Als Pastor in einer rauhen Gegend von Manhattan half er seinen Gemeindegliedern, mit den Auswirkungen der Armut fertig zu werden. Diese Arbeit führte ihn in ei…

Social Gospel

(971 words)

Author(s): Toulouse, Mark G.
[English Version] Social Gospel, innerhalb des US-amer. Protestantismus des späten 19.Jh. entstandene, lose organisierte Bewegung. Genaue Daten für Anfang und Ende lassen sich nur schwer bestimmen. Das S.G. verband traditionelle evangelikale Frömmigkeit mit einem neuen Aufruf zur Verbesserung der sozialen Ordnung. Impulse für die Entstehung des S.G. kamen aus mindestens vier unterschiedlichen Bereichen: 1. Die außerkirchl. sozialen Krisen, verbunden mit den wirtschaftlichen Auseinandersetzungen de…

Rauschenbusch, Walter

(279 words)

Author(s): Toulouse, Mark G.
[German Version] (Oct 4, 1861, Rochester, NY – Jul 25, 1918, Rochester), pastor, theological teacher, and leading theologian of the Social Gospel ¶ movement. Rauschenbusch graduated in 1884 from Rochester University and in 1886 from Rochester Theological Seminary. During his studies he absorbed the critical tendencies of the writings of A. Ritschl and A. v. Harnack. As pastor in a rough area of Manhattan, he helped his church members to cope with the effects of poverty. This work led him into a circle of like-minded f…

Pat Robertson: Apocalyptic Theology and American Foreign Policy

(97 words)

Author(s): Toulouse, Mark G.
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 25: The U…