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Etymander

(102 words)

Author(s): Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] Longest river (1,000 km) of the Persian core provinces  Arachosia and  Drangiana (modern Helmand Rūd), now inside Afghanistan. Today the Helmand no longer reaches the lake basin of Daryāče-ye Sı̄stān, but disappears in swamps because some of its water is diverted for irrigation. Arr. Anab. 4,6,6 reports that this river flows through the territory of the Εὐεργέται ( Euergétai,  Ariaspae). Plin. HN 6,92 calls the river the Erymandus. Curt. 8,9,10 erroneously located the river in India with the name Ethymantus. Treidler, Hans (Berlin) Bibliography Barrington Atlas…

Etymandros

(101 words)

Author(s): Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[English version] Längster Fluß (1000 km) der altpers. Länder Arachosias und Drangiana (h. Helmand Rūd), jetzt innerhalb der Grenzen Afghanistans. Gegenwärtig erreicht der Hilmand wegen Ableitung des Flusses an einigen Stellen zwecks Bewässerung nicht mehr das Seebecken des Daryāče-ye Sı̄stān, sondern verliert sich in Sümpfen. Arr. an. 4,6,6 berichtet über dieses Gewässer, es fließe durch das Gebiet der Εὐεργέται ( Euergétai, Ariaspai). Plin. nat. 6,92 nennt den Fluß Erymandus. Von Curt. 8,9,10 ist der E. unter dem Namen Ethymantus irrtümlich nach Indien verlegt. Treidler, Ha…

Cattigara

(387 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Καττίγαρα; Kattígara). Port in South-East Asia first mentioned by Ptol. (1,11,1; 17,4; 23) and Marcianus of Heraclia (1,46, GGM I, p. 538); a ὅρμος τῶν Σινῶν (‘harbour of the Sinai’). The name of the Σῖναι ( Sînai) points to C. being in the region of the Gulf of Tonking, of the ancient Μέγας κόλπος ( Mégas kólpos) [1] or Σινῶν κόλπος ( Sinôn kólpos) [2], as Marcianus himself and also Ptol. 7,3,3 call it. It formed the southern border of the Sînai and, according to ancient belief in around AD 200 it represented the eastern end of the   Oikouménē . In this area…

Erythra thalatta

(597 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Ἐρυθρὰ θάλαττα; Erythrà thálatta). [German version] [1] Corresponding roughly to the north-western Indian Ocean A sea (Ionian Ἐρυθρὴ θάλασσα, ‘Red Sea’) frequently mentioned from Herodotus until late antiquity, corresponding roughly in its normal extent to the north-western Indian Ocean (today's Arabian Sea), while today's Red Sea and Persian Gulf were regarded as κόλποι ( kólpoi) of the Erythra thalatta (ET). Later on, however, this name undoubtedly covered an area much further eastwards; even the term Periplus maris erythraei to describe the coast stretching from with…

Bactria

(970 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] A. Sources Herodotus was the first to write about ancient B., and he was closest to the events he describes; all further tradition is secondary, mainly also the information relating to the epoch of  Alexander [4] the Great by Arrian (A.) and Curtius Rufus, who refer back to Aristobulus, Ptolemy and Cleitarchus. Strabo (11,11) and Ptolemy (6,11 N) give coherent representations of B. and, in addition, there are scattered accounts by  Aelianus [2], Aeschylus, Aristotle, Diodorus Sicul…

Caucasiae Pylae

(44 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Καυκάσιαι Πύλαι; Kaukásiai Pýlai). Pass in the  Caucasus, only mentioned in Plin. HN 6,30; the same as what is now the Georgian military road, described in Ptol. 5,8,9 as Σαρματικαὶ Πύλαι ( Sarmatikaì Pýlai). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin)

Drapsaca

(138 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Δράψακα; Drápsaka). City in  Bactria, first mentioned in connection with Alexander the Great's campaigns, also attested in the forms Δάραψα and Δρέψα ( Dárapsa and Drépsa; Arr. Anab. 3,29,1; Str. 15,725; Ptol. 6,12,6; 8,23,13 N; Steph. Byz. p. 218). The form Δάραψα is preserved in the rural name of modern Andarāb north of Kābul (Hindu kush), while modern Qunduz should be regarded as the ancient D. [1]. Ptolemy includes D. in Sogdiana and also mentions the inhabitants (6,12,4: Δρεψιανοί; Drepsianoí). The Hyrcanian Ἄδραψα ( Ádrapsa) mentioned by Ptol. 6,9,6 has no…

Bactrus

(132 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Βάκτρος; Báktros). [German version] [1] Inhabitant of the city of Bactra or of the land  Bactria Inhabitant of the city of Bactra or of the land  Bactria (usually ὁ Βάκτριος and Βακτριανός), see Dionys. Per. 736 (GGM II p. 150), Nonnus, Dion. 25,374, Str. 11,11,3 Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) [German version] [2] Southerly tributary of the Oxus Southerly tributary of the Oxus (Āmū-daryā), today Balḫāb (Curt. 7,4,31; Plin. HN 6,48; Str. 11,11,2 i.a.); identical with the  Araxes, according to Aristot. Mete. 1,13,16 and Ps.-Plut. De …

Artaxata

(91 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Limes | Rome Founded by Artaxias on the advice of Hannibal (188 BC), capital of  Armenia (today Artashat, south-east of Jerewan), on the left bank of the Araxes (today Aras), also called Ἀρταξιάσατα ( Artaxiásata) by Str. 11.14.5-6, otherwise attested by App. Mith. 104 (Ἀρτάξατα ἡ βασίλειος), Plut. Luc. 31.3 (τὸ Τιγράνου βασίλειον), Cass. Dio 36.51; 1.49.39.3 and Ptol. 5.12.5; 8.19.10; Tac. Ann. 2.56 and passim. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin)

Balkh

(116 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Βάκτρα; Báktra). Commercial and residential town at the intersection of two caravan routes in north Afghanistan. Originally Ζαρίασπα ( Zaríaspa; Arr. 3,1,5,71; Pol. 10,49) or Zariastes (Plin. HN 6,48). Today densely populated and, therefore, only excavations at the edge of the tell.  Antiochus III besieged  Euthydemus in vain in 206 BC; the latter built up the Graeco-Bactrian empire from here ( Bactria). In 1966, a hoard find brought forth more than 170 Greek coins from the period before 380 BC. Inhabited and fortified until today. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Trei…

Issedones

(90 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰσσηδόνες; Issēdónes, Ἰσσηδοί; Issēdoí, Ἐσσηδόνες; Essēdónes). A Scythian people of Asian origin. According to Herodotus (1,201; 4,13-26), they lived southeast of the Aral Sea; however, the heaviest population centres within the regions of their habitation lay in Central Asia. Ptolemy (6,16,5; 16,7; 8,24,3; 24,5 N) ascribes to them the cities of Ἰσσηδὼν Σκυθική (modern Kucha) and Ἰσσηδὼν Σηρική (modern Charqliq), which were located on the Silk Road in Chinese East Turkistan (Tarim Basin, Xinjiang), to the southwest of Lobnor.  Scythians Renger, Johannes (Ber…

Ganges

(224 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Γάγγης; Gángēs, Sanskrit Gaṅga). The largest river in India, known to the west (Arr. Anab. 5,4,1; 5,6,7; 5,9,4; 5,26,1; Curt. 8,9,5, et passim) since Alexander's campaign ( Alexander [4], with map), if not already in Ktesias (in Plin. HN 37,39). Its length was measured in the early Hellenistic period and calculated to be 10,000 stadia (Str. 15,689). According to Str. 15,719 its source lay in the Ēmōdá órē (Himalaya). The G. is mentioned several times by Ptolemy (7,1,29; 30; 42; 51 Nobbe, et passim), its delta described as having five arms (7,1,18), and also the Gangētikós…

Arsamosata

(87 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Limes Often mentioned stronghold in Armenia, mentioned by Pol. 8 .23 for the year 189 BC, located by Plin. HN 6.26 ( Arsamosata Euphrati proximum) and mentioned by Tac. Ann. 15.10 for the year AD 62. In Ptol. 5.12.8: Ἀρσαμόσατα ( Arsamósata). Either identical to Erzurum (upper western Euphrates) or situated south of the eastern Euphrates between the latter and the Tigris. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin)

Araxes

(156 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Ἀράξης; Aráxēs). [German version] [1] Largest river in Armenia Largest river in Armenia (today known as the Aras, Georgian Rakhsî), flows into the Caspian Sea; its full extent was not known until Roman times (Pompey) (Mela 3,40; Plin. HN 6,26; Ptol. 5,12,3 M. i.a.). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) [German version] [2] Another name for the Oxus According to Hdt. 1,202, another name for the Oxus (today Amu-darja), a western tributary of which (today: Wadi Usboi) reached as far as the Caspian Sea in Neolithic times. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) …

Baris Oros

(81 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Βάρις ὄρος; Báris óros). The ancient name for the highest mountain of  Armenia, the Ararat (5165 m). The source on which this is based is Nicolaus of Damascus, in Ios. Ant. Iud. 1, p. 95; p. 18 Niese. The Βaris Οros belonged to the Armenian landscape Μινουάς ( Minouás; today Manawazeau) and was located south-west of the old  Artaxata (today Artašat). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) Bibliography Atlas of the World II. Dardanelles, Bosporus, Turkey East, 1959, Pl. 37.

Daras

(191 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] [1] River which rises in the Upper Atlas River which rises in the Upper Atlas (Δύρις; Dýris), flows through the region to the south of the Anti-Atlas mountains and into the Atlantic Ocean, today known as Oued Dra. Other forms of the name: Dyris, Vitr. De arch. 8,2,6; Darat, Plin. HN 5,9; Δάραδος or Δάρας; Dárados or Dáras, Ptol. 4,6,6; 9; 14; Dara, Oros. 1,2,31. It is possible that the D. can be identified with the Λίξος ( Líxos) mentioned by Hanno, Periplus 6 (GGM 1,5) and the Ξιῶν/ X iôn mentioned by [Scyl.] 112 (GGM 1,93). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. T. Fischer, s.v. …

Hypanis

(142 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Ὕπανις; Hýpanis). [German version] [1] River in the Ukraine River in the Ukraine (modern Bug). According to Hdt. 4,47,52 it flows from west to east, next to  Ister (Danube) and  Tyras (Dniestr) the third of the Scythian rivers that flows to the Pontus. Further sources: Hdt. 4,17,18; Skymni periegesis V. 804 (= GGM 1,229); Str. 2,107; 7, 298; 306; Ptol. 3,5,2; Anonymi periplus Ponti Euxini 60 (= GGM 1,417); Steph. Byz. s.v.  Borysthenes; Mela 2,6; Plin. HN 4,83f. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) [German version] [2] River in the northern Caucasus Modern Kuban, which …

Aeniana

(119 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] A place in Armenia on the upper Araxes (present-day Aras), recorded only by Str. in books 11,7,1; 14,14. It was incorrectly associated with the southern Thessalian Αἰᾶνες ( Aiânes). An inland area of Armenia called Hani, a place with the same name located south-west of Lake Urmia and also Ani, a place on the upper Aras, are all very old indigenous names which led to this incorrect conclusion. Also, the district Οἰταία ( Oitaía) and the mountain Οἴτη ( Oítē) were associated with the Οὐίτιοι ( Ouítioi) tribe and the Οὐιτία ( Ouitía) area in the Araxes region. This resulted…

Iaxartes

(144 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] River in western Central Asia, modern Syr Darya, 2,860 km long; rises at the Taedyk pass in the eastern Altai Mountains. After flowing northwards for a short distance it takes in the Naryn River, which originates not far from Lake Issyk-Kul, then enters the plains of Kazakhstan south-west of Tashkent (where it becomes navigable) and flows into the  Aral Sea (Amm. Marc. 23,6,59). The indigenous Scythians called the I. Silis or Orxantes, Alexander the Great called it Tanais (Plin. HN 6,49; Arr. Anab. 3,30-7-8 et passim, but also I. Arr. Anab. 7,16,3 among others), …

Dardanees

(58 words)

Author(s): Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] [1] A people living by the river Gyndes A people living by the river  Gyndes (modern Diyālā), whose territory was traversed by  Cyrus II on his expedition to Babylon (Hdt. 1,189). Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig) [German version] [2] see Dardae Another form of the name for the  Dardae (Δάρδαι; Dárdai) of northern India. Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
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