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Ephod

(478 words)

Author(s): Utzschneider, Helmut
[German Version] At least three semantic spheres can be discerned in the Old Testament for the term אֵפוֹד extending to the cult and especially to priestly activities (Priesthood): 1. The ephod refers to priestly garments: a. In the draft of the priestly Sinai texts, the אֵפוֹד appears as part of Aaron's high-priestly vestments. It was made of ¶ precious materials (Exod 28:6/39:2; 25:7/35:9), was worn over all other clothing, and was probably a kind of apron or tunic (Exod 29:5/Lev 8:7) with …

Malachi, Book of

(1,117 words)

Author(s): Utzschneider, Helmut
[German Version] I. Title – II. Literary Features and Content of the Book – III. Literary and Reception History I. Title The book of Malachi (Mal), which is usually placed at the end of the Twelve Prophets (Prophetic books) in Bible manuscripts and editions, is attributed by the heading Mal 1:1 to a certain Malachi, albeit without mention of date or location. The Hebrew word מַלְאָכִי/ malʾākî can be taken as a personal name, but may also be read as a descriptive term with highly suggestive meanings such as “my messenger” or “messenger of YHWH.” The chronol…

Tradition Criticism/Tradition History of the Bible

(757 words)

Author(s): Utzschneider, Helmut
[German Version] I. Terminology The terms tradition criticism and tradition history are not used consistently in Old Testament and New Testament biblical scholarship and its methods (Biblical ¶ criticism, Exegesis); the differences in usage are determined by whether the basic term tradition is used in the sense of content ( traditum) or (less commonly) in the sense of a process ( traditio). As ideal types, there are two basic concepts, one related to the text, the other to themes. 1. Tradition can refer to specific texts. In this usage, tradition history deals with the preh…

Holy of Holies

(371 words)

Author(s): Utzschneider, Helmut | Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Catholic Church I. Old Testament In its broader sense, the phrase holy of holies or most holy (Heb. קדֶשׁ [ה-]קָדָשִּׁים/ qōdeš [haq]qodāšîm) designates objects or spaces associated especially closely with the cultic presence of God, such as sacrificial offerings (Lev 21:22) and cultic utensils (Exod 30:29). In its narrower sense, with the definite article, the holy of holies denotes a separate space within the sanctuary in which God may be considered present in various ways. In the tent of meeting or tabernacle, acc…

Literature, History of

(11,666 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | Utzschneider, Helmut | Reiser, Marius | Hezser, Catherine | Heinzmann, Michael
[German Version] I. The Concept and its Problems – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Judaism – V. Church History I. The Concept and its Problems Since the emergence of historical consciousness in the late 18th and early 19th century, literary historiography has attempted to present literary phenomena not simply as a sequential chronological or lexical (alphabetical) list but in their internal, substantial coherence and its historical development. The notion of literary history goes back to antiquity, but to …